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Sec. 1.337(d)-2 Loss limitation rules.

(a) Loss disallowance--

(1) General rule. No deduction is allowed for any loss recognized by a member of a consolidated group with respect to the disposition of stock of a subsidiary. However, for transactions involving loss shares of subsidiary stock occurring on or after September 17, 2008, see § 1.1502-36. Further, this section does not apply to a transaction that is subject to § 1.1502-36.

(2) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(i) The definitions in § 1.1502-1 apply.

(ii) Disposition means any event in which gain or loss is recognized, in whole or in part.

(3) Coordination with loss deferral and other disallowance rules. For purposes of this section, the rules of § 1.1502-20(a)(3) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of § 1.1502-20.

(4) Netting. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to loss with respect to the disposition of stock of a subsidiary, to the extent that, as a consequence of the same plan or arrangement, gain is taken into account by members with respect to stock of the same subsidiary having the same material terms. If the gain to which this paragraph applies is less than the amount of the loss with respect to the disposition of the subsidiary's stock, the gain is applied to offset loss with respect to each share disposed of as a consequence of the same plan or arrangement in proportion to the amount of the loss deduction that would have been disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section with respect to such share before the application of this paragraph (a)(4). If the same item of gain could be taken into account more than once in limiting the application of paragraphs (a)(1) and (b)(1) of this section, the item is taken into account only once.

(b) Basis reduction on deconsolidation--

(1) General rule. If the basis of a member of a consolidated group in a share of stock of a subsidiary exceeds its value immediately before a deconsolidation of the share, the basis of the share is reduced at that time to an amount equal to its value. If both a disposition and a deconsolidation occur with respect to a share in the same transaction, paragraph (a) of this section applies and, to the extent necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section, this paragraph (b) applies following the application of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Deconsolidation. Deconsolidation means any event that causes a share of stock of a subsidiary that remains outstanding to be no longer owned by a member of any consolidated group of which the subsidiary is also a member.

(3) Value. Value means fair market value.

(4) Netting. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply to reduce the basis of stock of a subsidiary, to the extent that, as a consequence of the same plan or arrangement, gain is taken into account by members with respect to stock of the same subsidiary having the same material terms. If the gain to which this paragraph applies is less than the amount of basis reduction with respect to shares of the subsidiary's stock, the gain is applied to offset basis reduction with respect to each share deconsolidated as a consequence of the same plan or arrangement in proportion to the amount of the reduction that would have been required under paragraph (b)(1) of this section with respect to such share before the application of this paragraph (b)(4).

(c) Allowable loss--

(1) Application. This paragraph (c) applies with respect to stock of a subsidiary only if a separate statement entitled § 1.337(d)-2(c) statement is included with the return in accordance with paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(2) General rule. Loss is not disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section and basis is not reduced under paragraph (b)(1) of this section to the extent the taxpayer establishes that the loss or basis is not attributable to the recognition of built-in gain, net of directly related expenses, on the disposition of an asset (including stock and securities). Loss or basis may be attributable to the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of an asset by a prior group. For purposes of this section, gain recognized on the disposition of an asset is built-in gain to the extent attributable, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, to any excess of value over basis that is reflected, before the disposition of the asset, in the basis of the share, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, after applying section 1503(e) and other applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and regulations. Federal income taxes may be directly related to built-in gain recognized on the disposition of an asset only to the extent of the excess (if any) of the group's income tax liability actually imposed under Subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code for the taxable year of the disposition of the asset over the group's income tax liability for the taxable year redetermined by not taking into account the built-in gain recognized on the disposition of the asset. For this purpose, the group's income tax liability actually imposed and its redetermined income tax liability are determined without taking into account the foreign tax credit under section 27(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(3) Contents of statement and time of filing. The statement required under paragraph (c)(1) of this section must be included with or as part of the taxpayer's return for the year of the disposition or deconsolidation and must contain--

(i) The name and employer identification number (E.I.N.) of the subsidiary; and

(ii) The amount of the loss not disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section by reason of this paragraph (c) and the amount of basis not reduced under paragraph (b)(1) of this section by reason of this paragraph (c).

(4) Example. The principles of paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section are illustrated by the examples in § § 1.337(d)-1(a)(5) and 1.1502-20(a)(5) (other than Examples 3, 4, and 5) and (b), with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of § 1.1502-20, and by the following example. For purposes of the examples in this section, unless otherwise stated, the group files consolidated returns on a calendar year basis, the facts set forth the only corporate activity, and all sales and purchases are with unrelated buyers or sellers. The basis of each asset is the same for determining earnings and profits adjustments and taxable income. Tax liability and its effect on basis, value, and earnings and profits are disregarded. Investment adjustment system means the rules of § 1.1502-32. The example reads as follows:

Example. Loss offsetting built-in gain in a prior group.

(i) P buys all the stock of T for $50 in Year 1, and T becomes a member of the P group. T has 2 assets. Asset 1 has a basis of $50 and a value of $0, and asset 2 has a basis of $0 and a value of $50. T sells asset 2 during Year 3 for $50 and recognizes a $50 gain. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the T stock increased to $100 as a result of the recognition of gain. In Year 5, all of the stock of P is acquired by the P1 group, and the former members of the P group become members of the P1 group. T then sells asset 1 for $0, and recognizes a $50 loss. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the T stock decreases to $50 as a result of the loss. T's assets decline in value from $50 to $40. P then sells all the stock of T for $40 and recognizes a $10 loss.

(ii) P's basis in the T stock reflects both T's unrecognized gain and unrecognized loss with respect to its assets. The gain T recognizes on the disposition of asset 2 is built-in gain with respect to both the P and P1 groups for purposes of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. In addition, the loss T recognizes on the disposition of asset 1 is built-in loss with respect to the P and P1 groups for purposes of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. T's recognition of the built-in loss while a member of the P1 group offsets the effect on T's stock basis of T's recognition of the built-in gain while a member of the P group. Thus, P's $10 loss on the sale of the T stock is not attributable to the recognition of built-in gain, and the loss is therefore not disallowed under paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(iii) The result would be the same if, instead of having a $50 built-in loss in asset 1 when it becomes a member of the P group, T has a $50 net operating loss carryover and the carryover is used by the P group.

(d) Successors. For purposes of this section, the rules and examples of § 1.1502-20(d) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of § 1.1502-20.

(e) Anti-avoidane rules. For purposes of this section, the rules and examples of § 1.1502-20(e) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of § 1.1502-20.

(f) Investment adjustments. For purposes of this section, the rules and examples of § 1.1502-20(f) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of § 1.1502-20.

(g) Effective dates. This section applies with respect to dispositions and deconsolidations on or after March 3, 2005. In addition, this section applies to dispositions and deconsolidations for which an election is made under § 1.1502-20(i)(2) to determine allowable loss under this section. If loss is recognized because stock of a subsidiary became worthless, the disposition with respect to the stock is treated as occurring on the date the stock became worthless. For dispositions and deconsolidations after March 6, 2002 and before March 3, 2005, see § 1.337(d)-2T as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 in effect on March 2, 2005.

[T.D. 8364, 56 FR 47389, Sept. 19, 1991; corrected at 57 FR 53550, Nov. 12, 1992, as amended by T.D. 8560, 59 FR 41666-41704, Aug. 15, 1994; T.D. 8597, 60 FR 3661-36710; T.D. 8984, 67 FR 11034-11040, Mar. 12, 2002. Revised by T.D. 9187, 70 FR 10319-10327, Mar. 3, 2005; T.D. 9424, 73 FR 53934-53987, Sept. 17, 2008.]

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