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Sec. 1.367(b)-4 Acquisition of foreign corporate stock or assets by a foreign corporation in certain nonrecognition transactions.

(a) Scope. This section applies to certain acquisitions by a foreign corporation of the stock or assets of a foreign corporation in an exchange described in section 351 or in a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1). Paragraph (b) of this section provides a rule regarding when an exchanging shareholder is required to include in income as a deemed dividend the section 1248 amount attributable to the stock that it exchanges. Paragraph (c) of this section provides a rule excluding deemed dividends from foreign personal holding company income. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for subsequent sales or exchanges. Paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section provide rules regarding certain exchanges following inversion transactions. Paragraph (g) of this section provides definitions and special rules, including special rules regarding triangular reorganizations and recapitalizations. Paragraph (h) of this section provides the applicability dates for certain paragraphs of this section. See also §1.367(a)-3(b)(2) for transactions subject to the concurrent application of sections 367(a) and (b) and §1.367(b)-2 for additional definitions that apply.

(b) Income inclusion. If a foreign corporation (the transferee foreign corporation) acquires the stock of a foreign corporation in an exchange described in section 351 or the stock or assets of a foreign corporation in a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1) (in either case, the foreign acquired corporation), then an exchanging shareholder must, if its exchange is described in paragraph (b)(1)(i), (b)(2)(i), or (b)(3) of this section, include in income as a deemed dividend the section 1248 amount attributable to the stock that it exchanges.

(1) Exchange that results in loss of status as section 1248 shareholder.

(i) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, an exchange is described in this paragraph (b)(1)(i) if--

(A) Immediately before the exchange, the exchanging shareholder is--

(1) A United States person that is a section 1248 shareholder with respect to the foreign acquired corporation; or

(2) A foreign corporation, and a United States person is a section 1248 shareholder with respect to such foreign corporation and with respect to the foreign acquired corporation;

(B) Either of the following conditions is satisfied--

(1) Immediately after the exchange, the stock received in the exchange is not stock in a corporation that is a controlled foreign corporation as to which the United States person described in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A) of this section is a section 1248 shareholder; or

(2) Immediately after the exchange, the transferee foreign corporation or the foreign acquired corporation (in the case of the acquisition of the stock of a foreign acquired corporation) is not a controlled foreign corporation as to which the United States person described in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A) of this section is a section 1248 shareholder; and

(C) The exchange is not a specified exchange to which paragraph (e)(1) of this section applies.

(ii) Special rules.

(A) Receipt of foreign stock in an exchange to which § 1.367(a)-7(c) applies. If an exchanging shareholder is a domestic corporation that transfers stock of a foreign acquired corporation in an exchange under section 361(a) or (b) (section 361 exchange) to which the exception to section 367(a)(5) in § 1.367(a)-7(c) applies, and the exchanging shareholder receives stock in either the transferee foreign corporation or foreign controlling corporation (in the case of a triangular reorganization), such exchange will not be described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section only if immediately after the exchanging shareholder's receipt of the foreign stock in the section 361 exchange, but prior to, and without taking into account, the exchanging shareholder's distribution of the foreign stock under section 361(c)(1), the foreign acquired corporation, transferee foreign corporation, and foreign controlling corporation (in the case of a triangular reorganization) are controlled foreign corporations as to which the exchanging shareholder is a section 1248 shareholder. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, Example 4, for an illustration of this rule. If an exchange is not described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section as a result of the application of this paragraph, see §§ 1.1248(f)-1(b)(3) and 1.1248(f)-2(c), as applicable. For adjustments to the basis of stock of the foreign surviving corporation in certain triangular reorganizations, see paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B)(2)(i) of this section.

(B) Special rules for certain triangular reorganizations.

(1) Receipt of domestic stock. In the case of a triangular reorganization in which the stock received in the exchange is stock of a domestic controlling corporation, such exchange is not described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section if immediately after the exchange the following foreign corporations are controlled foreign corporations as to which the domestic controlling corporation is a section 1248 shareholder --

(i) The foreign acquired corporation and foreign surviving corporation, in the case of a section 354 exchange of the stock of the foreign acquired corporation pursuant to a triangular B reorganization.

(ii) The foreign surviving corporation, in the case of a section 354 or section 356 exchange of the stock of the foreign acquired corporation pursuant to a forward triangular merger, triangular C reorganization, reverse triangular merger, or triangular G reorganization. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, Example 3B for an illustration of this rule.

(iii) The foreign acquired corporation and foreign surviving corporation, in the case of a section 361 exchange of the stock of the foreign acquired corporation by an exchanging shareholder that is a foreign corporation described in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A)(2) of this section and that is a foreign acquired corporation the assets of which are acquired in a triangular reorganization described in paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B)(1)(ii) of this section.

(iv) The foreign acquired corporation and foreign surviving corporation, in the case of a section 361 exchange of the stock of the foreign acquired corporation by an exchanging shareholder that is a domestic corporation described in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A)(1) of this section and that is acquired in a triangular reorganization to which the exception to section 367(a)(5) in § 1.367(a)-7(c) applies. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, Example 5 for an illustration of this rule.

(2) Adjustments to basis of stock of foreign surviving corporation.

(i) Section 361 exchanges to which § 1.367(a)-7(c) applies. If stock of the foreign acquired corporation is acquired by the foreign surviving corporation in a section 361 exchange by reason of triangular reorganization (other than a triangular B reorganization) to which the exception to section 367(a)(5) provided in § 1.367(a)-7(c) applies, and if paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section does not apply to the section 361 exchange by reason of (b)(1)(ii)(A) of this section (if the stock received is stock of a foreign controlling corporation) or by reason of (b)(1)(ii)(B)(1)(iv) of this section (if the stock received is stock of a domestic controlling corporation), then the controlling corporation (foreign or domestic) must apply the principles of § 1.367(b)-13 to adjust the basis of the stock of the foreign surviving corporation so that the section 1248 amount in the stock of the foreign acquired corporation (determined when the foreign surviving corporation acquires such stock) is reflected in the stock of the foreign surviving corporation immediately after the exchange. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, Example 5, for an illustration of this rule.

(ii) Other exchanges. See § 1.367(b)-13 for rules regarding the adjustment to the basis of the stock of the foreign surviving corporation in exchanges pursuant to triangular reorganizations that are not subject to paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B)(2)(i) of this section.

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (b)(1):

Example 1. (i) Facts. FC1 is a foreign corporation that is owned, directly and indirectly (applying the ownership rules of section 958), solely by foreign persons. DC is a domestic corporation that is unrelated to FC1. DC owns all of the outstanding stock of FC2, a foreign corporation. Thus, under section 1.367(b)-2(a) and (b), DC is a section 1248 shareholder with respect to FC2, and FC2 is a controlled foreign corporation. Under section 1.367(b)-2(c)(1), the section 1248 amount attributable to the stock of FC2 held by DC is $20. In a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(C), FC1 acquires all of the assets and assumes all of the liabilities of FC2 in exchange for FC1 voting stock. The FC1 voting stock received does not represent more than 50 percent of the voting power or value of FC1's stock. FC2 distributes the FC1 stock to DC, and the FC2 stock held by DC is canceled.

(ii) Result. FC1 is not a controlled foreign corporation immediately after the exchange. As a result, the exchange is described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (b) of this section, DC must include in income, as a deemed dividend from FC2, the section 1248 amount ($20) attributable to the FC2 stock that DC exchanged.

Example 2. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the voting stock of FC1, which is received by FC2 in exchange for its assets and distributed by FC2 to DC, represents more than 50 percent of the voting power of FC1's stock under the rules of section 957(a).

(ii) Result. Paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section does not apply to require inclusion in income of the section 1248 amount, because FC1 is a controlled foreign corporation as to which DC is a section 1248 shareholder immediately after the exchange.

Example 3. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that FC2 receives and distributes voting stock of FP, a foreign corporation that is in control (within the meaning of section 368(c)) of FC1, instead of receiving and distributing voting stock of FC1.

(ii) Result. For purposes of section 367(a), the transfer is an indirect stock transfer subject to section 367(a). See section 1.367(a)-3(d)(1)(iv). Accordingly, DC's exchange of FC2 stock for FP stock under section 354 will be taxable under section 367(a) (and section 1248 will be applicable) if DC fails to enter into a gain recognition agreement in accordance with section 1.367(a)-8. Under section 1.367(a)-3(b)(2), if DC enters into a gain recognition agreement, the exchange will be subject to the provisions of section 367(b) and the regulations thereunder, as well as section 367(a). If FP and FC1 are controlled foreign corporations as to which DC is a (direct or indirect) section 1248 shareholder immediately after the reorganization, then the section 367(b) result is the same as in Example 2 -- that is, paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section does not apply to require inclusion in income of the section 1248 amount. Under these circumstances, the amount of the gain recognition agreement would equal the amount of the gain realized on the indirect stock transfer. If FP or FC1 is not a controlled foreign corporation as to which DC is a (direct or indirect) section 1248 shareholder immediately after the exchange, then the section 367(b) result is the same as in Example 1 -- that is, DC must include in income, as a deemed dividend from FC2, the section 1248 amount ($20) attributable to the FC2 stock that DC exchanged. Under these circumstances, the amount of the gain recognition agreement would equal the amount of the gain realized on the indirect stock transfer, less the $20 section 1248 amount inclusion.

Example 3A. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 3, except that FC1 merges into FC2 in a reorganization described in sections 368(a)(1)(A) and (a)(2)(E), Pursuant to the reorganization, DC exchanges its FC2 stock for stock of FP.

(ii) Result. The result is similar to the result in Example 3. The transfer is an indirect stock transfer subject to section 367(a). See § 1.367(a)-3(d)(1)(ii). Accordingly, DC's exchange of FC2 stock for FP stock will be taxable under section 367(a) (and section 1248 will be applicable) if DC fails to enter into a gain recognition agreement. If DC enters into a gain recognition agreement, the exchange will be subject to the provisions of section 367(b) and the regulations thereunder, as well as section 367(a). If FP and FC2 are controlled foreign corporations as to which DC is a section 1248 shareholder immediately after the reorganization, then paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section does not apply to require DC to include in income the section 1248 amount attributable to the FC2 stock that was exchanged and the amount of the gain recognition agreement is the amount of gain realized on the indirect stock transfer. If FP or FC2 is not a controlled foreign corporation as to which DC is a section 1248 shareholder immediately after the exchange, then DC must include in income as a deemed dividend from FC2 the section 1248 amount ($20) attributable to the FC2 stock that DC exchanged. Under these circumstances, the gain recognition agreement would be the amount of gain realized on the indirect transfer, less the $20 section 1248 amount inclusion.

Example 3B. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as Example 3, except that USP, a domestic corporation, owns the controlling interest (within the Meaning of section 368(c)) in FC1 stock. In addition, FC2 merges into FC1 in a reorganization described in sections 368(a)(1)(A) and (a)(2)(D). Pursuant to the reorganization, DC exchanges its FC2 stock for USP stock.

(ii) Result. Because DC receives stock of a domestic corporation, USP, in the section 354 exchange, the transfer is not an indirect stock transfer subject to section 367(a). Accordingly, the exchange will be subject only to the provisions of section 367(b) and the regulations thereunder. Under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, because the stock received is stock of a domestic corporation (USP) and, immediately after the exchange, USP is a section 1248 shareholder of FC1 (the surviving corporation) and FC1 is a controlled foreign corporation, the exchange is not described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section and DC is not required to include in income the section 1248 amount attributable to the FC2 stock that was exchanged. See § 1.367(b)-13(c) for the basis and holding period rules applicable to this transaction, which cause USP's adjusted basis and holding period in the stock of FC1 after the transaction to reflect the basis and holding period that DC had in its FC2 stock.

Example 4. (i) Facts. DC1, a domestic corporation, owns all of the outstanding stock of DC2, a domestic corporation. DC2 owns various assets, including all of the outstanding stock of FC2, a foreign corporation. The stock of FC2 has a value of $100, and DC2 has a basis of $30 in the stock. The section 1248 earnings and profits attributable to the FC2 stock held by DC2 is $20. DC2 does not own any stock other than the FC2 stock. FC1 is a foreign corporation that is unrelated to DC1, DC2, and FC2. In a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(C), FC1 acquires all of the assets of DC2 in exchange for the assumption of DC2's liabilities and voting stock of FC1 that represents 20% of the outstanding voting stock of FC1. DC2 distributes the FC1 stock to DC1 under section 361(c)(1), and the DC2 stock held by DC1 is canceled. The exception to section 367(a)(5) provided in § 1.367(a)-7(c) applies to the section 361 exchange. DC1 properly files a gain recognition agreement that satisfies the conditions of §§ 1.367(a)-3(e)(6) and 1.367(a)-8 to qualify for nonrecognition treatment under section 367(a) with respect to DC2's transfer of the FC2 stock to FC1. See § 1.367(a)-3(e). FC1 is not a surrogate foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 7874) because DC1 does not hold at least 60% of the stock of FC1 by reason of holding stock of DC2.

(ii) Result. DC2, the exchanging shareholder, is a U.S. person and a section 1248 shareholder with respect to FC2, the foreign acquired corporation. Whether DC2 is required to include in income the section 1248 amount attributable to the FC2 stock under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section depends on whether, immediately after DC2's section 361 exchange of the FC2 stock for FC1 stock (and before the distribution of the FC1 stock to DC1 under section 361(c)(1)), FC1 and FC2 are controlled foreign corporations as to which DC2 is a section 1248 shareholder. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A) of this section. If, immediately after the section 361 exchange (and before the distribution of the FC1 stock to DC1 under section 361(c)(1)), FC1 and FC2 are both controlled foreign corporations as to which DC2 is a section 1248 shareholder, then DC2 is not required to include in income the section 1248 amount attributable to the FC2 stock under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section because neither condition in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B) of this section is satisfied. Alternatively, if immediately after the section 361 exchange (and before the distribution of the FC1 stock to DC1 under section 361(c)(1)) either FC1 or FC2 is not a controlled foreign corporation as to which DC2 is a section 1248 shareholder, then, pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, DC2 must include in income the section 1248 amount attributable to the FC2 stock. For the treatment of DC2's transfer of assets other than the FC2 stock to FC1, see section 367(a)(1) and (a)(3) and the regulations under that section. Furthermore, because DC2's transfer of any other assets to FC1 is pursuant to a section 361 exchange, see section 367(a)(5) and § 1.367(a)-7. If any of the assets transferred are intangible assets for purposes of section 367(d), see section 367(d). With respect to DC2's distribution of the FC1 stock to DC1 under section 361(c)(1), see section 1248(f)(1), and §§ 1.1248(f)-1 and 1.1248(f)-2.

Example 5. (i) Facts. DC1, a domestic corporation, wholly owns DC2, a domestic corporation. The DC2 stock has a $100x fair market value, and DC1 has a basis of $30x in the stock. DC2's only asset is all of the outstanding stock of FC2, a foreign corporation. The FC2 stock has a $100x fair market value, and DC2 has a basis of $30x in the stock. There are $20x of earnings and profits attributable to the FC2 stock for purposes of section 1248. USP, a domestic corporation unrelated to DC1, DC2, and FC2, wholly owns FC1, a foreign corporation. In a triangular reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(C), DC2 transfers all the FC2 stock to FC1 in exchange solely for voting stock of USP, and distributes the USP stock to DC1 under section 361(c)(1). DC1 exchanges its DC2 stock for the USP stock under section 354. DC2's transfer of the FC2 stock to FC1 is described in section 361(a) and therefore, under section 367(a)(5) and § 1.367(a)-7, is generally subject to section 367(a)(1). However, the exception to section 367(a)(5) provided in § 1.367(a)-7(c) applies to the section 361 exchange. In addition, DC1 is not required to adjust the basis of its USP stock (determined under section 358) under section 367(a)(5) and § 1.367(a)-7(c)(3). DC1 properly files a gain recognition agreement that satisfies the conditions of §§ 1.367(a)-3(e)(6) and 1.367(a)-8 to qualify for nonrecognition treatment under section 367(a) with respect to DC2's transfer of the FC2 stock to FC1. See § 1.367(a)-3(e).

(ii) Result. Immediately after the exchange, FC1 and FC2 are controlled foreign corporations as to which USP is a section 1248 shareholder because USP directly and indirectly owns all the FC1 stock and FC2 stock, respectively. Because DC2 receives stock of a domestic corporation (USP) in exchange for the FC2 stock and, immediately after the exchange, FC1 and FC2 are controlled foreign corporations as to which USP is a section 1248 shareholder, DC2's exchange of the FC2 stock for the USP stock is not described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. See paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B)(1)(iv) of this section. Therefore, DC2 is not required to include in income the section 1248 amount in the FC2 stock. Under paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(B)(2)(i) of this section, USP must apply the principles of § 1.367(b)-13 to adjust the basis of its FC1 stock to preserve the section 1248 amount ($20x) in the FC2 stock. Under the principles of § 1.367(b)-13, each share of FC1 stock held by USP after the exchange must be divided into portions, one portion attributable to the FC1 stock owned before the exchange and one portion attributable to the FC2 stock received in the exchange. The $30x basis in the FC2 stock and the $20x earnings and profits attributable to the FC2 stock before the exchange are attributable to the divided portions of the FC1 stock to which the FC2 stock relates.

(2) Receipt by exchanging shareholder of preferred or other stock in certain instances.

(i) Rule. An exchange is described in this paragraph (b)(2)(i) if--

(A) Immediately before the exchange, the foreign acquired corporation and the transferee foreign corporation are not members of the same affiliated group (within the meaning of section 1504(a), but without regard to the exceptions set forth in section 1504(b), and substituting the words "more than 50" in place of the words "at least 80" in sections 1504(a)(2)(A) and (B));

(B) Immediately after the exchange, a domestic corporation directly or indirectly owns 10 percent or more of the voting power or value of the transferee foreign corporation; and

(C) The exchanging shareholder receives preferred stock (other than preferred stock that is fully participating with respect to dividends, redemptions and corporate growth) in consideration for common stock or preferred stock that is fully participating with respect to dividends, redemptions and corporate growth, or, in the discretion of the Commissioner or the Commissioner's delegate (and without regard to whether the stock exchanged is common stock or preferred stock), receives stock that entitles it to participate (through dividends, redemption payments or otherwise) disproportionately in the earnings generated by particular assets of the foreign acquired corporation or transferee foreign corporation.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (b)(2):

Example 1. (i) Facts. FC1 is a foreign corporation. DC is a domestic corporation that is unrelated to FC1. DC owns all of the outstanding stock of FC2, a foreign corporation, and FC2 has no outstanding preferred stock. The value of FC2 is $100 and DC has a basis of $50 in the stock of FC2. Under section 1.367(b)-2(c)(1), the section 1248 amount attributable to the stock of FC2 held by DC is $20. In a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(B), FC1 acquires all of the stock of FC2 and, in exchange, DC receives FC1 voting preferred stock that constitutes 10 percent of the voting stock of FC1 for purposes of section 902(a). Immediately after the exchange, FC1 and FC2 are controlled foreign corporations and DC is a section 1248 shareholder of FC1 and FC2, so paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section does not require inclusion in income of the section 1248 amount.

(ii) Result. Pursuant to section 1.367(a)-3(b)(2), the transfer is subject to both section 367(a) and section 367(b). Under section 1.367(a)-3(b)(1), DC will not be subject to tax under section 367(a)(1) if it enters into a gain recognition agreement in accordance with section 1.367(a)-8. Even though paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section does not apply to require inclusion in income by DC of the section 1248 amount, DC must nevertheless include the $20 section 1248 amount in income as a deemed dividend from FC2 under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section. Thus, if DC enters into a gain recognition agreement, the amount is $30 (the $50 gain realized less the $20 recognized under section 367(b)). If DC fails to enter into a gain recognition agreement, it must include in income under section 367(a)(1) the $50 of gain realized ($20 of which is treated as a dividend under section 1248). Section 367(b) does not apply in such case.

Example 2. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that DC owns all of the outstanding stock of FC1 immediately before the transaction.

(ii) Result. Both section 367(a) and section 367(b) apply to the transfer. Paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section does not apply to require inclusion of the section 1248 amount. Under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section, the transaction is outside the scope of paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section because FC1 and FC2 are, immediately before the transaction, members of the same affiliated group (within the meaning of such paragraph). Thus, if DC enters into a gain recognition agreement in accordance with section 1.367(a)-8, the amount of such agreement is $50. As in Example 1, if DC fails to enter into a gain recognition agreement, it must include in income $50, $20 of which will be treated as a dividend under section 1248.

Example 3. (i) Facts. FC1 is a foreign corporation. DC is a domestic corporation that is unrelated to FC1. DC owns all of the outstanding stock of FC2, a foreign corporation. The section 1248 amount attributable to the stock of FC2 held by DC is $20. In a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(B), FC1 acquires all of the stock of FC2 in exchange for FC1 voting stock that constitutes 10 percent of the voting stock of FC1 for purposes of section 902(a). The FC1 voting stock received by DC in the exchange carries voting rights in FC1, but by agreement of the parties the shares entitle the holder to dividends, amounts to be paid on redemption, and amounts to be paid on liquidation, that are to be determined by reference to the earnings or value of FC2 as of the date of such event, and that are affected by the earnings or value of FC1 only if FC1 becomes insolvent or has insufficient capital surplus to pay dividends.

(ii) Result. Under section 1.367(a)-3(b)(1), DC will not be subject to tax under section 367(a)(1) if it enters into a gain recognition agreement with respect to the transfer of FC2 stock to FC1. Under section 1.367(a)-3(b)(2), the exchange will be subject to the provisions of section 367(b) and the regulations thereunder to the extent that it is not subject to tax under section 367(a)(1). Furthermore, even if DC would not otherwise be required to recognize income under this section, the Commissioner or the Commissioner's delegate may nevertheless require that DC include the $20 section 1248 amount in income as a deemed dividend from FC2 under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section.

(3) Certain recapitalizations. An exchange pursuant to a recapitalization under section 368(a)(1)(E) shall be deemed to be an exchange described in this paragraph (b)(3) if the following conditions are satisfied--

(i) During the 24-month period immediately preceding or following the date of the recapitalization, the corporation that undergoes the recapitalization (or a predecessor of, or successor to, such corporation) also engages in a transaction that would be described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section but for paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C) of this section, either as the foreign acquired corporation or the transferee foreign corporation; and

(ii) The exchange in the recapitalization is described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C) of this section.

(c) Exclusion of deemed dividend from foreign personal holding company income.

(1) Rule. In the event the section 1248 amount is included in income as a deemed dividend by a foreign corporation under paragraph (b) of this section, such deemed dividend shall not be included as foreign personal holding company income under section 954(c).

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the rule of this paragraph (c):

Example. (i) Facts. FC1 is a foreign corporation that is owned, directly and indirectly (applying the ownership rules of section 958), solely by foreign persons. DC is a domestic corporation that is unrelated to FC1. DC owns all of the outstanding stock of FC2, a foreign corporation. FC2 owns all of the outstanding stock of FC3, a foreign corporation. Under section 1.367(b)-2(c)(1), the section 1248 amount attributable to the stock of FC3 held by FC2 is $20. In a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(B), FC1 acquires from FC2 all of the stock of FC3 in exchange for FC1 voting stock. The FC1 voting stock received by FC2 does not represent more than 50 percent of the voting power or value of FC1's stock.

(ii) Result. FC1 is not a controlled foreign corporation immediately after the exchange. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, FC2 must include in income, as a deemed dividend from FC3, the section 1248 amount ($20) attributable to the FC3 stock that FC2 exchanged. The deemed dividend is treated as a dividend for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code as provided in section 1.367(b)-2(e)(2); however, under this paragraph (c) the deemed dividend is not foreign personal holding company income to FC2.

(d) Rules for subsequent sales or exchanges.

(1) Rule. If an exchanging shareholder (as defined in §1.1248-8(b)(1)(iv)) is not required to include in income as a deemed dividend the section 1248 amount under paragraph (b) or paragraph (e)(1) of this section (non-inclusion exchange), then, for purposes of applying section 367(b) or 1248 to subsequent sales or exchanges, and subject to the limitation of §1.367(b)-2(d)(3)(ii) (in the case of a transaction described in §1.367(b)-3), the determination of the earnings and profits attributable to the stock an exchanging shareholder receives in the non-inclusion exchange is determined pursuant to the rules of section 1248 and the regulations under that section.

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the rules of this section. For purposes of the example, assume that --

(i) There is no immediate gain recognition pursuant to section 367(a)(1) and the regulations under that section (either through operation of the rules or because the appropriate parties have entered into a gain recognition agreement under §§ 1.367(a)-3(b) and 1.367(a)-8);

(ii) References to earnings and profits are to earnings and profits that would be includible in income as a dividend under section 1248 and the regulations under that section if stock to which the earnings and profits are attributable were sold or exchanged by its shareholder;

(iii) Each corporation has only a single class of stock outstanding and uses the calendar year as its taxable year; and

(iv) Each transaction is unrelated to all other transactions.

Example. Acquisition of the stock of a foreign corporation that controls a transferee foreign corporation in a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(C). (i) Facts. DC1, a domestic corporation, has owned all the stock of CFC1, a controlled foreign corporation, since its formation on January 1, year 1. CFC1 has owned all the stock of CFC2, a controlled foreign corporation, since its formation on January 1, year 1. FC, a foreign corporation that is not a controlled foreign corporation, has owned all of the stock of FC2, a foreign corporation, since its formation on January 1, year 2. On December 31, year 3, pursuant to a restructuring transaction that was a triangular reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(C), CFC1 transfers all of its assets, including the CFC2 stock, to FC2 in exchange for 80% of the voting stock of FC. CFC1 transfers the voting stock of FC to DC1 and the CFC1 stock is cancelled. Pursuant to section 1223(1), DC1 is considered to have held the stock of FC since January 1, year 1. Under section 1223(2), FC2 is considered to have held the stock of CFC2 since January 1, year 1. On December 31, year 3, CFC1 has $100 of earnings and profits. From January 1, year 4, until December 31, year 5, FC (a controlled foreign corporation after the restructuring transaction) accumulates an additional $50 of earnings and profits. FC2, a controlled foreign corporation after the restructuring transaction, accumulates $100 of earnings and profits from January 1, year 4, until December 31, year 5. On December 31, year 5, FC is liquidated into DC1 in a transaction described in section 332.

(ii) Result. Generally, this paragraph (d) requires that DC1 include in income the earnings and profits attributable to its stock in FC as determined under § 1.1248-8. However, since the liquidation of FC into DC1 is a transaction described in § 1.367(b)-3, the earnings and profits attributable to the stock of FC are limited by § 1.367(b)-2(d)(3)(ii) to that portion of the earnings and profits accumulated by FC itself before or after the restructuring transaction, and do not include the earnings and profits of FC's subsidiaries accumulated before or after the restructuring transaction. Thus, DC1 will include $40 of earnings and profits in income (80% of the $50 of earnings and profits accumulated by FC after the restructuring transaction).

(e) Income inclusion and gain recognition in certain exchanges following an inversion transaction.

(1) General rule. If a foreign corporation (the transferee foreign corporation) acquires stock of a foreign corporation in an exchange described in section 351 or stock or assets of a foreign corporation in a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1) (in either case, the foreign acquired corporation), then an exchanging shareholder must, if its exchange is a specified exchange and the exception in paragraph (e)(3) of this section does not apply--

(i) Include in income as a deemed dividend the section 1248 amount attributable to the stock that it exchanges; and

(ii) After taking into account the increase in basis provided in §1.367(b)-2(e)(3)(ii) resulting from the deemed dividend (if any), recognize all realized gain with respect to the stock that would not otherwise be recognized.

(2) Specified exchanges. An exchange is a specified exchange if--

(i) Immediately before the exchange, the foreign acquired corporation is an expatriated foreign subsidiary and the exchanging shareholder is either an expatriated entity described in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A)(1) of this section or an expatriated foreign subsidiary described in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A)(2) of this section;

(ii) The stock received in the exchange is stock of a foreign corporation; and

(iii) The exchange occurs during the applicable period.

(3) De minimis exception. The exception in this paragraph (e)(3) applies if--

(i) Immediately after the exchange, the foreign acquired corporation (in the case of an acquisition of stock of the foreign acquired corporation) or the transferee foreign corporation (in the case of an acquisition of assets of the foreign acquired corporation) is a controlled foreign corporation;

(ii) The post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to the foreign acquired corporation (in the case of an acquisition of stock of the foreign acquired corporation) or the transferee foreign corporation (in the case of an acquisition of assets of the foreign acquired corporation) is at least 90 percent of the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to the foreign acquired corporation; and

(iii) The post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to each lower-tier expatriated foreign subsidiary of the foreign acquired corporation is at least 90 percent of the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to the lower-tier expatriated foreign subsidiary.

(4) Certain exceptions from foreign personal holding company not available. An income inclusion of a foreign corporation under paragraph (e)(1) of this section does not qualify for the exceptions from foreign personal holding company income provided by sections 954(c)(3)(A)(i) and 954(c)(6) (to the extent in effect).

(5) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (e). For purposes of all of the examples, unless otherwise indicated: FP, a foreign corporation, owns all of the stock of USP, a domestic corporation, and all 40 shares of stock of FS, a controlled foreign corporation for its taxable year beginning January 1, 2017, but not for prior taxable years, except as a result of a transaction described in the facts of an example. USP owns all 50 shares of stock of FT1, a controlled foreign corporation, which, in turn, owns all 50 shares of FT2, a controlled foreign corporation. FP acquired all of the stock of USP in an inversion transaction that was completed on July 1, 2016. Therefore, with respect to that inversion transaction, USP is an expatriated entity; FT1 and FT2 are expatriated foreign subsidiaries; and FP and FS are each a non-EFS foreign related person. All entities have a calendar year tax year for U.S. tax purposes. All shares of stock have a fair market value of $1x, and each corporation has a single class of stock outstanding.

Example 1. Specified exchange to which general rule applies. (i) Facts. During the applicable period, and pursuant to a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(B), FT1 transfers all 50 shares of FT2 stock to FS in exchange solely for 50 newly issued voting shares of FS. Immediately before the exchange, USP is a section 1248 shareholder with respect to FT1 and FT2. At the time of the exchange, the FT2 stock owned by FT1 has a fair market value of $50x and an adjusted basis of $5x, such that the FT2 stock has a built-in gain of $45x. In addition, the earnings and profits of FT2 attributable to FT1’s stock in FT2 for purposes of section 1248 is $30x, taking into account the rules of §1.367(b)-2(c)(1)(i) and (ii), and therefore the section 1248 amount with respect to the FT2 stock is $30x (the lesser of the $45x of built-in gain and the $30x of earnings and profits attributable to the stock).

(ii) Analysis. FT1’s exchange is a specified exchange because the requirements set forth in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section are satisfied. The requirement set forth in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section is satisfied because, immediately before the exchange, FT2 (the foreign acquired corporation) is an expatriated foreign subsidiary and FT1 (the exchanging shareholder) is an expatriated foreign subsidiary that is described in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A)(2) of this section. The requirement set forth in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section is also satisfied because the stock received in the exchange (FS stock) is stock of a foreign corporation. The requirement set forth in paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section is satisfied because the exchange occurs during the applicable period. Accordingly, under paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section, FT1 must include in income as a deemed dividend $30x, the section 1248 amount with respect to its FT2 stock. In addition, under paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, FT1 must, after taking into account the increase in basis provided in §1.367(b)-2(e)(3)(ii) resulting from the deemed dividend (which increases FT1’s basis in its FT2 stock from $5x to $35x), recognize $15x ($50x amount realized less $35x basis), the realized gain with respect to the FT2 stock that would not otherwise be recognized.

Example 2. De minimis shift to non-EFS foreign related persons. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in the introductory sentences of this paragraph (e)(5), except as follows. FT1 does not own any shares of FT2, and all 40 shares of FS are owned by DX, a domestic corporation wholly owned by individual A, and thus FS is not a non-EFS foreign related person. During the applicable period and pursuant to a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(D), FT1 transfers all of its assets to FS in exchange for 50 newly issued FS shares, FT1 distributes the 50 FS shares to USP in liquidation under section 361(c)(1), and USP exchanges its 50 shares of FT1 stock for the 50 FS shares under section 354. Further, immediately after the exchange, FS is a controlled foreign corporation.

(ii) Analysis. Although USP’s exchange is a specified exchange, paragraph (e)(1) of this section does not apply to the exchange because, as described in paragraphs (ii)(A) through (C) of this Example 2, the requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section are satisfied.

(A) Because the assets, rather than the stock, of FT1 (the foreign acquired corporation) are acquired, the requirement set forth in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section is satisfied if FS (the transferee foreign corporation) is a controlled foreign corporation immediately after the exchange. As stated in the facts, FS is a controlled foreign corporation immediately after the exchange.

(B) The requirement set forth in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section is satisfied if the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS is at least 90% of the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FT1. Because USP, a domestic corporation that is an expatriated entity, directly owns 50 shares of FT1 stock immediately before the exchange, none of those shares are treated as indirectly owned by FP (a non-EFS foreign related person) for purposes of calculating the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FT1. See paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Thus, for purposes of calculating the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FT1, FP is treated as directly or indirectly owning 0%, or 0 of 50 shares, of the stock of FT1. Accordingly, the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FT1 is 100 (calculated as 100% less 0%, the percentage of FT1 stock that non-EFS foreign related persons are treated as directly or indirectly owning immediately before the exchange). Consequently, for the requirement set forth in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section to be satisfied, the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS must be at least 90. Because USP, a domestic corporation that is an expatriated entity, directly owns 50 shares of FS stock immediately after the exchange, none of those shares are treated as indirectly owned by FP (a non-EFS foreign related person) for purposes of calculating the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS. See paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Thus, for purposes of calculating the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS, FP is treated as directly or indirectly owning 0%, or 0 of 90 shares, of the stock of FS. As a result, the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS is 100 (calculated as 100% less 0%, the percentage of FS stock that non-EFS foreign related persons are treated as directly or indirectly owning immediately after the exchange). Therefore, because the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS (100) is at least 90, the requirement set forth in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section is satisfied.

(C) Because there is not a lower-tier expatriated foreign subsidiary of FT1, the requirement set forth in paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section does not apply.

(f) Gain recognition upon certain transfers of property described in section 351 following an inversion transaction.

(1) General rule. If, during the applicable period, an expatriated foreign subsidiary transfers specified property to a foreign corporation (the transferee foreign corporation) in an exchange described in section 351, then the expatriated foreign subsidiary must recognize all realized gain with respect to the specified property transferred that would not otherwise be recognized, unless the exception in paragraph (f)(2) of this section applies.

(2) De minimis exception. The exception in this paragraph (f)(2) applies if--

(i) Immediately after the transfer, the transferee foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation; and

(ii) The post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to the transferee foreign corporation is at least 90 percent of the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to the expatriated foreign subsidiary.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (f). For purposes of all of the examples, unless otherwise indicated: FP, a foreign corporation, owns all of the stock of USP, a domestic corporation, and all 10 shares of stock of FS, a controlled foreign corporation for its taxable year beginning January 1, 2017, but not for prior taxable years, except as a result of a transaction described in the facts of an example. USP owns all 50 shares of stock of FT, a controlled foreign corporation. FT owns Asset A, which is specified property with a fair market value of $50x and an adjusted basis of $10x. FP acquired all of the stock of USP in an inversion transaction that was completed on or after September 22, 2014. Accordingly, with respect to that inversion transaction, USP is an expatriated entity, FT is an expatriated foreign subsidiary, and FP and FS are each a non-EFS foreign related person. All entities have a calendar year tax year for U.S. tax purposes. All shares of stock have a fair market value of $1x, and each corporation has a single class of stock outstanding.

Example 1. Transfer to which general rule applies--(i) Facts. In addition to the stock of USP and FS, FP owns Asset B, which has a fair market value of $40x. During the applicable period, and pursuant to an exchange described in section 351, FT transfers Asset A to FS in exchange for 50 newly issued shares of FS stock, and FP transfers Asset B to FS in exchange for 40 newly issued shares of FS stock.

(ii) Analysis. Paragraph (f)(1) of this section applies to the transfer by FT (an expatriated foreign subsidiary) of Asset A, which is specified property, to FS (the transferee foreign corporation). Thus, FT must recognize gain of $40x under paragraph (f)(1) of this section, which is the realized gain with respect to Asset A that would not otherwise be recognized ($50x amount realized less $10x basis). For rules regarding whether the FS stock held by FT is treated as United States property for purposes of section 956, see §1.956-2(a)(4)(i).

Example 2. De minimis shift to non-EFS foreign related persons--(i) Facts. Individual, a United States person, owns Asset B, which has a fair market value of $40x. During the applicable period, and pursuant to an exchange described in section 351, FT transfers Asset A to FS in exchange for 50 newly issued shares of FS stock, and Individual transfers Asset B to FS in exchange for 40 newly issued shares of FS stock.

(ii) Analysis. Paragraph (f)(1) of this section does not apply to the transfer by FT (an expatriated foreign subsidiary) of Asset A, which is specified property, to FS (the transferee foreign corporation)) because the requirements set forth in paragraph (f)(2) of this section are satisfied. The requirement set forth in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section is satisfied because FS is a controlled foreign corporation immediately after the transfer. The requirement set forth in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section is satisfied if the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS is at least 90 percent of the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FT. Because USP, a domestic corporation that is an expatriated entity, directly owns 50 shares of FT stock immediately before the transfer, none of those shares are treated as indirectly owned by FP (a non-EFS foreign related person) for purposes of calculating the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FT. See paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Thus, for purposes of calculating the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FT, FP is treated as directly or indirectly owning 0 percent, or 0 of 50 shares, of the stock of FT. Accordingly, the pre-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FT is 100 (calculated as 100 percent less 0 percent, the percentage of FT stock that non-EFS foreign related persons are treated as directly or indirectly owning immediately before the transfer). Consequently, for the requirement set forth in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section to be satisfied, the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS must be at least 90. Although FP directly owns 10 FS shares, none of the 50 FS shares that FP owns through USP (a domestic corporation that is an expatriated entity) are treated as indirectly owned by FP for purposes of calculating the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS because USP directly owns them. See paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Thus, for purposes of calculating the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS, FP is treated as directly or indirectly owning 10 percent, or 10 of 100 shares, of the stock of FS. As a result, the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS is 90 (calculated as 100 percent less 10 percent, the percentage of FS stock that non-EFS foreign related persons are treated as directly or indirectly owning immediately after the transfer). Therefore, because the post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to FS (90) is at least 90, the requirement set forth in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section is satisfied.

(g) Definitions and special rules. In addition to the definitions and special rules in §§1.367(b)-2 and 1.7874-12, the following definitions and special rules apply for purposes of this section.

(1) Indirect ownership. To determine indirect ownership of the stock of a corporation for purposes of calculating a pre-exchange ownership percentage or post-exchange ownership percentage with respect to that corporation, the principles of section 958(a) apply without regard to whether an intermediate entity is foreign or domestic. For this purpose, stock of the corporation that is directly or indirectly (applying the principles of section 958(a) without regard to whether an intermediate entity is foreign or domestic) owned by a domestic corporation that is an expatriated entity is not treated as indirectly owned by a non-EFS foreign related person.

(2) A lower-tier expatriated foreign subsidiary means an expatriated foreign subsidiary whose stock is directly or indirectly owned (under the principles of section 958(a)) by an expatriated foreign subsidiary.

(3) Pre-exchange ownership percentage means, with respect to a corporation, 100 percent less the percentage of stock (by value) in the corporation that, immediately before an exchange, is owned, in the aggregate, directly or indirectly by non-EFS foreign related persons.

(4) Post-exchange ownership percentage means, with respect to a corporation, 100 percent less the percentage of stock (by value) in the corporation that, immediately after the exchange, is owned, in the aggregate, directly or indirectly by non-EFS foreign related persons.

(5) Specified property means any property other than stock of a lower-tier expatriated foreign subsidiary.

(6) Recapitalizations. A foreign corporation that undergoes a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(E) is treated as both the foreign acquired corporation and the transferee foreign corporation.

(7) Triangular reorganizations--

(i) Definition. A triangular reorganization means a reorganization described in §1.358-6(b)(2)(i) (forward triangular merger), (ii) (triangular C reorganization), (iii) (reverse triangular merger), (iv) (triangular B reorganization), and (v) (triangular G reorganization).

(ii) Special rules.

(A) Triangular reorganizations other than a reverse triangular merger. In the case of a triangular reorganization other than a reverse triangular merger, the surviving corporation is the transferee foreign corporation that acquires the assets or stock of the foreign acquired corporation, and the reference to controlling corporation (foreign or domestic) is to the corporation that controls the surviving corporation.

(B) Reverse triangular merger. In the case of a reverse triangular merger, the surviving corporation is the entity that survives the merger, and the controlling corporation (foreign or domestic) is the corporation that before the merger controls the merged corporation. In the case of a reverse triangular merger, this section applies only if stock of the foreign surviving corporation is exchanged for stock of a foreign corporation in control of the merging corporation; in such a case, the foreign surviving corporation is treated as a foreign acquired corporation.

(h) Applicability date of certain paragraphs in this section. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (h), paragraphs (a), (b) introductory text, (b)(1)(i)(C), (d)(1), (e), (f), and (g) of this section apply to exchanges completed on or after September 22, 2014, but only if the inversion transaction was completed on or after September 22, 2014. Paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section applies to exchanges completed on or after November 19, 2015, but only if the inversion transaction was completed on or after September 22, 2014. The portion of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section that requires the exchanging shareholder to be an expatriated entity or an expatriated foreign subsidiary apply to exchanges completed on or after April 4, 2016, but only if the inversion transaction was completed on or after September 22, 2014. For inversion transactions completed on or after September 22, 2014, however, taxpayers may elect to apply the portion of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section that requires the exchanging shareholder to be an expatriated entity or an expatriated foreign subsidiary to exchanges completed on or after September 22, 2014, and before April 4, 2016. Paragraphs (f) and (g)(5) of this section apply to transfers completed on or after April 4, 2016, but only if the inversion transaction was completed or after September 22, 2014. See §1.367(b)-4, as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2016, for exchanges completed before September 22, 2014. Paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section applies to exchanges completed in taxable years of exchanging shareholders ending on or after November 2, 2020, and to taxable years of exchanging shareholders ending before November 2, 2020, resulting from an entity classification election made under §301.7701-3 of this chapter that was effective on or before November 2, 2020, but was filed on or after November 2, 2020.

[T.D. 8770, 63 FR 33550-33570, June 19, 1998; corrected at 64 FR 15687, Apr. 1, 1999. Revised by T.D. 8862, 65 FR 3589-3609, Jan. 24, 2000; corrected at 65 FR 66500-66502, Nov. 6, 2000; amended by T.D. 9243, 71 FR 4276-4294, Jan. 26, 2006; T.D. 9250, 71 FR 8802-8805, Feb. 21, 2006; T.D. 9311, 72 FR 5174-5197, Feb. 5, 2007; T.D. 9345, 72 FR 41442-41450, July 30, 2007; T.D. 9444, 74 FR 6824-6828, Feb. 11, 2009; T.D. 9446, 74 FR 6951-6976, Feb. 11, 2009; T.D. 9614, 78 FR 17023-17052, Mar. 19, 2013; T.D. 9760, 81 FR 15159-15170, Mar. 22, 2016; T.D. 9761, 81 FR 20857-20909, Apr. 8, 2016; corrected at 81 FR 40810-40812, Jun. 23, 2016; amended by T.D. 9834, 83 FR 32524-32561, July 12, 2018; T.D. 9959, 87 FR 276-376, Jan. 4, 2022; corrected at 87 FR 45018-45021, July 27, 2022.]

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