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Sec. 1.250(b)-4 Foreign-derived deduction eligible income (FDDEI) sales.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules for determining whether a sale of property is a FDDEI sale. Paragraph (b) of this section defines a FDDEI sale. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules for determining whether a recipient is a foreign person. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for determining whether property is sold for a foreign use. Paragraph (e) of this section provides a special rule for the sale of interests in a disregarded entity. Paragraph (f) of this section provides a rule regarding certain hedging transactions with respect to FDDEI sales.

(b) Definition of FDDEI sale. Except as provided in §1.250(b)-6(c), the term FDDEI sale means a sale of general property or intangible property to a recipient that is a foreign person (see paragraph (c) of this section for presumption rules relating to determining foreign person status) and that is for a foreign use (as determined under paragraph (d) of this section). A sale of any property other than general property or intangible property is not a FDDEI sale.

(c) Presumption of foreign person status.

(1) In general. The sale of property is presumed to be to a recipient that is a foreign person for purposes of paragraph (b) of this section if the sale is described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. However, this presumption does not apply if the seller knows or has reason to know that the sale is not to a foreign person. A seller has reason to know that a sale is not to a foreign person if the information received as part of the sales process contains information that indicates that the recipient is not a foreign person and the seller fails to obtain evidence establishing that the recipient is in fact a foreign person. Information that indicates that a recipient is not a foreign person include, but are not limited to, a United States phone number, billing address, shipping address, or place of residence; and, with respect to an entity, evidence that the entity is incorporated, formed, or managed in the United States.

(2) Sales of property. A sale of a property is described in this paragraph (c)(2) if:

(i) The sale is a foreign retail sale;

(ii) In the case of a sale of general property that is not a foreign retail sale and the general property is delivered (such as through a commercial carrier) to the recipient or an end user, the shipping address of the recipient or end user is outside the United States;

(iii) In the case of a sale of general property that is not described in either paragraph (c)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section, the billing address of the recipient is outside the United States; or

(iv) In the case of a sale of intangible property, the billing address of the recipient is outside the United States.

(d) Foreign use.

(1) Foreign use for general property.

(i) In general. The sale of general property is for a foreign use for purposes of paragraph (b) of this section if the seller determines that the sale is for a foreign use under the rules of paragraph (d)(1)(ii) or (iii) of this section and the exception in paragraph (d)(1)(iv) of this section does not apply.

(ii) Rules for determining foreign use.

(A) Sales that are delivered to an end user by a carrier or freight forwarder. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(A), a sale of general property (other than a sale of general property described in paragraphs (d)(1)(ii)(D) through (F) of this section) that is delivered through a carrier or freight forwarder to a recipient that is an end user is for a foreign use if the end user receives delivery of the general property outside the United States. However, a sale described in the preceding sentence is not treated as a sale to an end user for a foreign use if the sale is made with a principal purpose of having the property transported from its location outside the United States to a location within the United States for ultimate use or consumption.

(B) Sales to an end user without the use of a carrier or freight forwarder. With respect to sales that are not delivered through the use of a carrier or freight forwarder, a sale of general property (other than a sale of general property described in paragraphs (d)(1)(ii)(D) through (F) of this section) to a recipient that is an end user is for a foreign use if the property is located outside the United States at the time of the sale (including as part of foreign retail sales).

(C) Sales for resale. A sale of general property (other than a sale of general property described in paragraphs (d)(1)(ii)(D) through (F) of this section) to a recipient (such as a distributor or retailer) that will resell the general property is for a foreign use if the general property will ultimately be sold to end users outside the United States (including in foreign retail sales) and such sales to end users outside the United States are substantiated under paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. In the case of sales of a fungible mass of general property, the taxpayer may presume that the proportion of its sales that are ultimately sold to end users outside the United States is the same as the proportion of the recipient's resales of that fungible mass to end users outside the United States.

(D) Sales of digital content. A sale of general property that primarily contains digital content that is transferred electronically rather than in a physical medium is for a foreign use if the end user downloads, installs, receives, or accesses the purchased digital content on the end user's device outside the United States (see §1.250(b)-5(d)(2) and (e)(2)(iii) for rules that apply in the case of digital content that is not purchased in a sale but is electronically supplied as a service). If information about where the digital content is downloaded, installed, received, or accessed (such as the device's IP address) is unavailable, and the gross receipts from all sales with respect to the end user (which may be a business) are in the aggregate less than $50,000 for the seller's taxable year, a sale of general property described in the preceding sentence is for a foreign use if it is to an end user that has a billing address located outside the United States.

(E) Sales of international transportation property used for compensation or hire. A sale of international transportation property used for compensation or hire is for a foreign use if the end user registers the property with a foreign jurisdiction.

(F) Sales of international transportation property not used for compensation or hire. A sale of international transportation property not used for compensation or hire is for a foreign use if the end user registers the property in a foreign jurisdiction and hangars or stores the property primarily outside the United States.

(iii) Sales for manufacturing, assembly, or other processing.

(A) In general. A sale of general property is for a foreign use if the sale is to a foreign unrelated party that subjects the property to manufacture, assembly, or other processing outside the United States and such manufacturing, assembly, or other processing outside the United States is substantiated under paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section. Property is subject to manufacture, assembly, or other processing only if the property is physically and materially changed (as described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(B) of this section) or the property is incorporated as a component into another product (as described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(C) of this section).

(B) Property subject to a physical and material change. The determination of whether general property is subject to a physical and material change is made based on all the relevant facts and circumstances. General property is subject to a physical and material change if it is substantially transformed and is distinguishable from and cannot be readily returned to its original state.

(C) Property incorporated into a product as a component. General property is a component incorporated into another product if the incorporation of the general property into another product involves activities that are substantial in nature and generally considered to constitute the manufacture, assembly, or processing of property based on all the relevant facts and circumstances. However, general property is not considered a component incorporated into another product if it is subject only to packaging, repackaging, labeling, or minor assembly operations. In addition, general property is treated as a component if the seller expects, using reliable estimates, that the fair market value of the property when it is delivered to the recipient will constitute no more than 20 percent of the fair market value of the finished good into which the general property is directly or indirectly incorporated when the finished good is sold to end users (the “20-percent rule”). If the property could be incorporated into a number of different finished goods, a reliable estimate of the fair market value of the finished good may include the average fair market value of a representative range of such goods. For purposes of the 20-percent rule, all general property that is sold by the seller and incorporated into the finished good is treated as a single item of property if the seller sells the property to the recipient and the seller knows or has reason to know that the components will be incorporated into a single item of property (for example, where multiple components are sold as a kit). A seller knows or has reason to know that the components will be incorporated into a single item of property if the information received as part of the sales process indicates that the components will be included in the same second product or the nature of the components compels inclusion into the second product and the seller fails to obtain evidence to the contrary.

(iv) Sales of property subject to manufacturing, assembly, or other processing in the United States. If the seller sells general property to a recipient (other than a related party) for manufacturing, assembly, or other processing within the United States, such property is not sold for a foreign use even if the requirements of paragraph (d)(1)(ii) or (iii) of this section are subsequently satisfied. See §1.250(b)-6(c) for rules governing sales of general property to a foreign person that is a related party. Property is subject to manufacture, assembly, or other processing only if the property is physically and materially changed (as described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(B) of this section) or the property is incorporated as a component into another product (as described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(C) of this section).

(v) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (d)(1).

(A) Assumed facts. The following facts are assumed for purposes of the examples —

(1) DC is a domestic corporation.

(2) FP is a foreign person that is a foreign unrelated party with respect to DC.

(3) To the extent a sale is for a foreign use, any applicable substantiation requirements described in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) or (iii) of this section are satisfied.

(B) Examples.

(1) Example 1: Manufacturing outside the United States.

(i) Facts. DC sells batteries for $18x to FP. DC expects that FP will insert the batteries into tablets as part of the process of assembling tablets outside the United States. While the tablets are manufactured in a way that end users would not easily be able to remove the batteries, the batteries could be removed from the tablets and would resemble their original state following the removal. The finished tablets will be sold to end users within and outside the United States. DC's batteries are used in two types of tablets, Tablet A and Tablet B. Based on an economic analysis, DC determines that the fair market value of Tablet A is $90x and the fair market value of Tablet B is $110x. FP informs DC that the number of sales of Tablet A is approximately equal to the number of sales of Tablet B.

(ii) Analysis. Because the batteries could be removed from the tablets and be returned to their original state, the insertion of the batteries into the tablets does not constitute a physical and material change described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(B) of this section. However, the average fair market value of a representative range of tablets that incorporate the batteries is $100x (the average of $90x for Tablet A and $110x for Tablet B because their sales are approximately equal), and $18x is less than 20 percent of $100x. Therefore, the batteries are considered components of the tablets and treated as subject to manufacture, assembly, or other processing outside the United States. See paragraphs (d)(1)(iii)(A) and (C) of this section. As a result, notwithstanding that some tablets incorporating the batteries may be sold to an end user in the United States, DC's sale of batteries is considered for a foreign use. Accordingly, DC's sale of batteries to FP is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(A) and (C) of this section, and the sale is a FDDEI sale.

(2) Example 2: Manufacturing outside the United States.

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (d)(1)(v)(B)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except FP purchases the batteries from DC for $25x. In addition, FP purchased other components of tablets from other parties. FP has a substantial investment in machinery and tools that are used to assemble tablets.

(ii) Analysis. Even though the fair market value of the batteries that FP purchases from DC and incorporates into the tablets exceeds 20 percent of the fair market value of the tablets, because the batteries are used by FP in activities that are substantial in nature and generally considered to constitute the manufacture, assembly or other processing of property, the batteries are components of the tablets. As a result, DC's sale of property to FP is still for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(A) and (C) of this section, and the sale is a FDDEI sale.

(3) Example 3: Sale of products to distributor outside the United States.

(i) Facts. DC sells smartphones to FP, a distributor of electronics located within Country A. The sales contract between DC and FP provides that FP may sell the smartphones it purchases from DC only to specified retailers located within Country A. The specified retailers only sell electronics, including smartphones, in foreign retail sales.

(ii) Analysis. Although FP does not sell the smartphones it purchases from DC to end users, FP sells to retailers that sell the smartphones in foreign retail sales. All of the sales of smartphones from DC to FP are sales of general property for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(C) of this section because FP is only allowed to sell the smartphones to retailers who sell such property in foreign retail sales. As a result, DC's sales of smartphones to FP are FDDEI sales.

(4) Example 4: Sale of a fungible mass of products.

(i) Facts. DC and persons other than DC sell multiple units of printer paper that is considered fungible general property to FP during the taxable year. FP is a distributor that sells paper to retail stores within and outside the United States. FP informs DC that approximately 25 percent of FP's sales of the paper are to retail stores located outside of the United States for foreign retail sales.

(ii) Analysis. The sale of paper to FP is for a foreign use to the extent that the paper will be sold to end users located outside the United States under paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(C) of this section. Because a portion of DC's sales to FP are not for a foreign use, DC must determine the amount of paper that is sold for a foreign use. Based on the information provided by FP about its own sales, DC determines under paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(C) of this section that 25 percent of the total units of paper that is fungible general property that FP purchased from all persons in the taxable year will ultimately be sold to end users located outside the United States. Accordingly, DC satisfies the test for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(C) of this section with respect to 25 percent of its sales of the paper to FP.

(5) Example 5: Limited use license of copyrighted computer software.

(i) Facts. DC provides FP with a limited use license to copyrighted computer software in exchange for an annual fee of $100x. The limited use license restricts FP's use of the computer software to 100 of FP's employees, who download the software onto their computers. The limited use license prohibits FP from using the computer software in any way other than as an end user, which includes prohibiting sublicensing, selling, reverse engineering, or modifying the computer software. All of FP's employees download the software onto computers that are physically located outside the United States.

(ii) Analysis. The software licensed to FP is digital content as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(1), and is downloaded by an end user as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2). Accordingly, because the software is downloaded solely onto computers outside the United States, DC's license to FP is for a foreign use and therefore a FDDEI sale under paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(D) of this section. The entire $100x of the license fee is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(6) Example 6: Limited use license of copyrighted computer software used within and outside the United States.

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (d)(1)(v)(B)(5) of this section (the facts in Example 5), except that FP has offices both within and outside the United States, and DC's internal records indicates that 50 percent of the downloads of the software are onto computers located outside the United States.

(ii) Analysis. Because 50 percent of the downloads of the software are onto computers located outside the United States, a portion of DC's license to FP is for a foreign use and therefore such portion is a FDDEI sale. The $50x of license fee derived with respect to such portion is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(7) Example 7: Sale of a copyrighted article.

(i) Facts. DC sells copyrighted music available for download on its website. Once downloaded, the recipient listens to the music on electronic devices that do not need to be connected to the internet. DC has data that an individual accesses the website to purchase a song for download on a device located outside the United States. The terms of the sale permit the recipient to use the song for personal use, but convey no other rights to the copyrighted music to the recipient.

(ii) Analysis. The music acquired through download is digital content as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(1). Because the recipient acquires no ownership in copyright rights to the music, the sale is considered a sale of a copyrighted article, and thus is a sale of general property. See §1.250(b)-3(b)(10) and (11). As a result, the sale is considered for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(D) of this section because the digital content was installed, received, or accessed on the end user's device outside the United States. The income derived with respect to the sale of the music is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year. See §1.250(b)-5(d)(3) for an example of digital content provided to consumers as a service rather than as a sale.

(2) Foreign use for intangible property.

(i) In general. A sale of rights to exploit intangible property solely outside the United States is for a foreign use. A sale of rights to exploit intangible property solely within the United States is not for a foreign use. A sale of rights to exploit intangible property worldwide is partially for a foreign use and partially not for a foreign use. Whether intangible property is exploited within versus outside the United States is determined based on revenue earned from end users located within versus outside the United States. Therefore, a sale of rights to exploit intangible property both within and outside the United States is for a foreign use in proportion to the revenue earned from end users located outside the United States over the total revenue earned from the exploitation of the intangible property. A sale of intangible property will be treated as a FDDEI sale only if the substantiation requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this section are satisfied. For rules specific to determining end users and revenue earned from end users for intangible property used in sales of general property, provision of services, research and development, or consisting of a manufacturing method or process, see paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Determination of end users and revenue earned from end users.

(A) Intangible property embedded in general property or used in connection with the sale of general property. If intangible property is embedded in general property that is sold, or used in connection with a sale of general property, then the end user of the intangible property is the end user of the general property. Revenue is earned from the end user of the general property outside the United States to the extent the sale of the general property is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) or (iii) of this section.

(B) Intangible property used in providing a service. If intangible property is used to provide a service, then the end user of that intangible property is the recipient, consumer, or business recipient of the service or, in the case of a property service or a transportation service that involves the transportation of property, the end user is the owner of the property on which such service is being performed. Such end users are treated as located outside the United States only to the extent the service qualifies as a FDDEI service under §1.250(b)-5. Therefore, in the case of a recipient of a sale of intangible property that uses such intangible property to provide a property service that qualifies as a FDDEI service to another person, that person is the end user and is treated as located outside the United States.

(C) Intangible property consisting of a manufacturing method or process.

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(2) of this section, if intangible property consists of a manufacturing method or process (as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(3) of this section) and is sold to a foreign unrelated party (including in a sale by a foreign related party), then the foreign unrelated party is treated as an end user located outside the United States, unless the seller knows or has reason to know that the manufacturing method or process will be used in the United States, in which case the foreign unrelated party is treated as an end user located within the United States. A seller has reason to know that the manufacturing method or process will be used in the United States if the information received from the recipient as part of the sales process contains information that indicates that the recipient intends to use the manufacturing method or process in the United States and the seller fails to obtain evidence establishing that the recipient does not intend to use the manufacturing method or process in the United States.

(2) Exception for certain manufacturing arrangements. A sale of intangible property consisting of a manufacturing method or process (including a sale by a foreign related party) to a foreign unrelated party for use in manufacturing products for or on behalf of the seller or any person related to the seller does not qualify as a sale to a foreign unrelated party for purposes of determining the end user under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(1) of this section.

(3) Manufacturing method or process. For purposes of this section, a manufacturing method or process consists of a sequence of actions or steps that comprise an overall method or process that is used to manufacture a product or produce a particular manufacturing result, which may be in the form of a patent or know-how. Intangible property consisting of the right to make and sell an item of property is not a manufacturing method or process, whereas intangible property consisting of the right to apply a series of actions or steps to be performed to achieve a particular manufacturing result is a manufacturing method or process. For example, a utility or design patent on an article of manufacture, machine, composition of matter, design, or providing the right to sell equipment to perform a process is not a manufacturing method or process, whereas a utility patent covering a method or process of manufacturing is a manufacturing method or process for purposes of this section.

(D) Intangible property used in research and development. If intangible property (primary IP) is used to develop new or modify other intangible property (secondary IP), then the end user of the primary IP is the end user (applying paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A), (B), or (C) of this section) of the secondary IP.

(iii) Determination of revenue for periodic payments versus lump sums.

(A) Sales in exchange for periodic payments. In the case of a sale of intangible property, other than intangible property consisting of a manufacturing method or process that is sold to a foreign unrelated party, to a recipient in exchange for periodic payments, the extent to which the sale is for a foreign use is determined annually based on the actual revenue earned by the recipient from any use of the intangible property for the taxable year in which a periodic payment is received. If actual revenue earned by the recipient cannot be obtained after reasonable efforts, then estimated revenue earned by a recipient that is not a related party of the seller from the use of the intangible property may be used based on the principles of paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section.

(B) Sales in exchange for a lump sum. In the case of a sale of intangible property, other than intangible property consisting of a manufacturing method or process that is sold to a foreign unrelated party, for a lump sum, the extent to which the sale is for a foreign use is determined based on the ratio of the total net present value of revenue the seller would have expected to earn from the exploitation of the intangible property outside the United States to the total net present value of revenue the seller would have expected to earn from the exploitation of the intangible property. In the case of a recipient that is a foreign unrelated party, net present values of revenue that the recipient expected to earn from the exploitation of the intangible property within and outside the United States may also be used if the seller obtained such revenue data from the recipient near the time of the sale and such revenue data was used to negotiate the lump sum price paid for the intangible property. Net present values must be determined using reliable inputs including, but not limited to, reliable revenue, expenses, and discount rates. The extent to which the inputs are used by the parties to determine the sales price agreed to between the seller and a foreign unrelated party purchasing the intangible property will be a factor in determining whether such inputs are reliable. If the intangible property is sold to a foreign related party, the reliability of the inputs used to determine net present values and the net present values are determined under section 482.

(C) Sales to a foreign unrelated party of intangible property consisting of a manufacturing method or process. In the case of a sale to an unrelated foreign party of intangible property consisting of a manufacturing method or process, the revenue earned from the end user is equal to the amount received from the recipient in exchange for the manufacturing method or process. In the case of a bundled sale of intangible property consisting of a manufacturing method or process and intangible property not consisting of a manufacturing method or process, the revenue earned from the intangible property consisting of the manufacturing method or process equals the total amount paid for the bundled sale multiplied by the proportion that the value of the manufacturing method or process bears to the total value of the intangible property. The value of the manufacturing method or process to the total value of the intangible property must be determined using the principles of section 482.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (d)(2).

(A) Assumed facts. The following facts are assumed for purposes of the examples —

(1) DC is a domestic corporation.

(2) Except as otherwise provided, FP and FP2 are foreign persons that are foreign unrelated parties with respect to DC.

(3) All of DC's income is DEI.

(4) Except as otherwise provided, the substantiation requirements described in paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this section are satisfied.

(5) Except as otherwise provided, inputs used to determine the net present values of the revenue are reliable.

(B) Examples.

(1) Example 1: License of worldwide rights with actual revenue data from recipient.

(i) Facts. DC licenses to FP worldwide rights to the copyright to composition A in exchange for annual royalties of 60 percent of revenue from FP's sales of composition A. FP sells composition A to customers through digital downloads from servers. In the taxable year, FP earns $100x in revenue from sales of copies of composition A to customers, of which $60x is from customers located in the United States and the remaining $40x is from customers located outside the United States. FP provides DC with reliable records showing the amount of revenue earned in the taxable year from sales of composition A to establish the royalties owed to DC. These records also provide DC with the amount of revenue earned from sales of composition A to customers located within the United States.

(ii) Analysis. FP is not the end user of the copyright to composition A under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section because the copyright is used in the sale of general property (the sale of copyrighted articles to customers). The customers that purchase a copy of composition A from FP are the end users (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) because those customers are the recipients of composition A when sold as general property. Based on the actual revenue earned by FP from sales of composition A, 40 percent ($40x/$100x) of the revenue generated by the copyright during the taxable year is earned outside the United States. Accordingly, a portion of DC's license to FP is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and therefore such portion is a FDDEI sale. The $24x of royalty (0.40 x $60x of total royalties owed to DC during the taxable year) derived with respect to such portion is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(2) Example 2: Fixed annual payments for worldwide rights without actual revenue data from recipient.

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B)(1)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except FP pays DC a fixed annual payment of $60x each year for the worldwide rights to the copyright to composition A and does not provide DC with data showing how much revenue FP earned from sales of composition A, even after DC requests that FP provide it with such information. DC also is unable to determine how much revenue FP earned from sales of composition A to customers within the United States from the data it has with respect to FP and publicly available data with respect to FP. However, DC's economic analysis of the revenue DC expected it could earn annually from use of composition A as part of determining the annual payments DC would receive from FP from the license of composition A supports a determination that 40 percent of sales of composition A during the tax year would be to customers located outside the United States. During an examination of DC's return for the taxable year, DC provides the IRS with data explaining the economic analysis, inputs, and results from its valuation of composition A used in determining the amount of annual payments agreed to by DC and FP.

(ii) Analysis. For the same reasons provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B)(1)(ii) of this section (the analysis in Example 1), the customers that purchase copies of composition A from FP are the end users. DC is allowed to use reliable economic analysis to estimate revenue earned by FP from the use of the copyright to composition A under paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A) of this section because DC was unable to obtain actual revenue earned by FP from use of the copyright to composition A during the taxable year after reasonable efforts to obtain the actual revenue data. Based on DC's economic analysis, a portion of DC's license to FP is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and therefore such portion is a FDDEI sale. $24x of the $60x fixed payment to DC (0.40 x $60x) is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(3) Example 3: Sale of patent rights protected in the United States and other countries; use of financial projections in sale to foreign unrelated party.

(i) Facts. DC owns a patent for an active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) approved for treatment of disease A (“indication A”) in the United States and in Countries A, B, and C. The patent is registered in the United States and in Countries A, B, and C. DC sells to FP all of its patent rights to the API for indication A for a lump sum payment of $1,000x. DC has no basis in the patent rights. To determine the sales price for the patent rights, DC projected that the net present value of the revenue it would earn from selling a pharmaceutical product incorporating the API for indication A was $5,000x, with 15 percent of the net present value of revenue earned from sales within the United States and 85 percent of the net present value of revenue earned from sales outside the United States. DC did not obtain revenue projections from the recipient.

(ii) Analysis. FP is not the end user of the patent under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section because the patent is used in the sale of general property (the sale of pharmaceutical products to customers) and FP is not the recipient of that general property. The unrelated party customers that purchase the finished pharmaceutical product from FP are the end users (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) because those customers are the unrelated party recipients of the pharmaceutical product when sold as general property. Based on the financial projections DC used to determine the sales price of the patent that FP purchased, a portion of DC's sale to FP is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and such portion is a FDDEI sale. The $850x (85 percent x $1,000x) of gain derived with respect to such portion is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(4) Example 4: Sale of patent rights protected in the United States and other countries; use of financial projections in sale to foreign related party.

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B)(3)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 3), except that FP is a foreign related party with respect to DC, and DC projected that the net present value of the revenue it would earn from selling a pharmaceutical product incorporating the API for indication A would result in 1 percent of the revenue earned from sales within the United States and 99 percent of the revenue earned from sales outside the United States. During the examination of DC's return for the taxable year, the IRS determines that DC's substantiation allocating the projected revenue from sales within the United States and outside the United States does not reflect reliable inputs to determine the net present values of revenues under section 482, but determines that the total lump sum price FP paid for DC's patent rights is an arm's length price. The IRS determines that the most reliable net present values of revenue DC would have earned from sales within the United States and outside the United States is $750x and $4250x, respectively.

(ii) Analysis. For the same reasons provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B)(3)(ii) of this section (the analysis in Example 3), the customers that purchase the finished pharmaceutical product from FP are the end users. Under paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, the reliability of the inputs DC used to determine the net present values and the net present values are determined under section 482. Based on the sales price of the patent that FP purchased and the IRS-determined net present values of revenue DC would have earned from sales within the United States and outside the United States, a portion of DC's sale to FP is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and such portion is a FDDEI sale. DC is allowed to include $850x (($4250x divided by $5000x) x $1,000x) of gain in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(5) Example 5: Sale of patent of manufacturing method or process protected in the United States and other countries; foreign unrelated party.

(i) Facts. DC owns the worldwide rights to a patent covering a process for refining crude oil. DC sells to FP the right to DC's patented process for refining crude oil for a lump sum payment of $100x. DC has no basis in the patent rights. DC does not know or have reason to know that FP will use the patented process to refine crude oil within the United States or will sell or license the rights to the patent to a person to refine crude oil within the United States.

(ii) Analysis. DC's patent covering a process for refining crude oil is a manufacturing method or process as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(3) of this section. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(1) of this section, FP is treated as the end user of the patent, and is treated as located outside the United States because FP is a foreign unrelated party and DC does not know or have reason to know that the patented process will be used in the United States. As a result, all of the sale to FP is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and therefore is a FDDEI sale. The entire $100x lump sum payment is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(6) Example 6: License of intangible property that includes a patented manufacturing method or process protected in the United States and other countries; foreign unrelated party.

(i) Facts. DC owns worldwide rights to patents, know-how, and a trademark and tradename for product Z. The patents consist of: a patent covering the right to make, use, and sell product Z (article of manufacture), a patent covering the rights to make, use, and sell a composition of substances used in certain components of product Z (composition of matter), and a patent covering the right to use a manufacturing process consisting of a series of manufacturing steps to manufacture product Z (manufacturing method or process as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(3) of this section) and to sell the product Z that FP manufactures using the manufacturing method or process. The know-how consists entirely of manufacturing know-how used to implement the manufacturing steps that comprise the manufacturing method or process. DC licenses the worldwide rights to the patents, know-how, and the trademark and tradename for product Z to FP in exchange for annual royalties of 60 percent of revenue from sales of product Z. FP manufactures product Z in country X and sells product Z to DC2, a domestic corporation and unrelated party to DC and FP, for resale to customers located within the United States. FP also sells product Z to FP2, a foreign unrelated party with respect to DC and FP, for resale to customers located outside the United States. During the taxable year, FP sells to DC2 $140x of product Z. Also, during the taxable year, FP sells to FP2 $60x of product Z. DC determines under the principles of section 482 that the licensed know-how and the patented manufacturing method or process comprise 10 percent of the arm's length price of the intangible property DC licenses to FP.

(ii) Analysis.

(A) End users. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(1) of this section, FP is treated as the end user of the patent covering the right to use the manufacturing process and the manufacturing know-how used to implement the manufacturing method or process, and is treated as located outside the United States because FP is a foreign unrelated party and DC does not know or have reason to know that the patented process and know-how will be used in the United States. DC2, FP, and FP2 are not the end users of the remaining intangible property under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section because that intangible property is used in the sale of general property (the sale of product Z) and DC2, FP, and FP2 are not the end users of that general property. The unrelated party customers that purchase product Z from DC2 and FP2 are the end users (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) because those customers are the unrelated party recipients of product Z.

(B) Foreign use. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, revenue from royalties paid for the intangible property other than the manufacturing method or process is earned from end users outside the United States to the extent the sale of the general property is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1) of this section. FP2 is a reseller of product Z to end users outside the United States, so all sales of product Z to FP2 are for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(C) of this section. Because DC has determined that 10 percent of the value of the intangible property consists of a manufacturing method or process (as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(3) of this section) used to manufacture product Z, $12x of the $120x royalty FP pays to DC during the taxable year is for foreign use ($120x total royalty x 0.10) based on the location of FP's manufacturing utilizing the know-how or all of the sequence of actions that comprise the manufacturing method or process under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(3) of this section. Based on the sales of product Z within and outside the United States, $32.4x of the royalties FP pays DC for rights to the licensed intangible property during the taxable year (($60x of revenue from sales to FP2 for resale to customers located outside the United States divided by $200x total worldwide sales revenue FP receives from DC2 and FP2) x ($120x total royalties less $12 of those royalties attributable to the manufacturing method or process)) qualifies as income earned from the sale of intangible property for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and therefore such portion is a FDDEI sale. As a result, $44.40x of royalties ($12x + $32.40x) is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(7) Example 7: License of intangible property that includes a patented manufacturing method or process protected in the United States and other countries; foreign related party with third-party manufacturer.

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B)(6)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 6), except that FP is a foreign related party with respect to DC and FP engages FP2, a foreign unrelated party, to manufacture product Z. FP sublicenses to FP2 the rights to the intangible property FP licenses from DC solely to manufacture product Z and sell product Z to FP. FP2 manufactures product Z in country Y and sells all of product Z it manufactures to FP. During the taxable year, FP sold $80x of product Z to DC2, which DC2 resold to customers located within the United States. Also, during the taxable year, FP sold $120x of product Z to customers located outside the United States.

(ii) Analysis.

(A) End users. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(1) of this section, FP is not treated as the end user of the patent covering the right to use the manufacturing process and the manufacturing know-how used to implement the manufacturing method or process because FP is a foreign related party with respect to DC. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(2) of this section, FP2 is also not treated as the end user of the patent covering the right to use the manufacturing process and the manufacturing know-how used to implement the manufacturing method or process because FP2 is using that intangible property to manufacture product Z for FP. DC2 is also not treated as the end user of the patent covering the right to use the manufacturing process and the manufacturing know-how used to implement the manufacturing method or process because DC2 does not use the patent or know-how in manufacturing. DC2, FP, and FP2 are not the end users of the remaining intangible property under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section because that intangible property is used in the sale of general property (the sale of product Z) and DC2, FP, and FP2 are not the end users of that general property. The unrelated party customers that purchase the Product Z from DC2 and FP are the end users (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) of the intangible property because those customers are the persons that ultimately use or consume product Z.

(B) Foreign use. Based on the sales of product Z to customers located within and outside the United States, $72x of the royalties FP pays DC for rights to the licensed intangible property during the taxable year (($120x of revenue from sales to customers located outside the United States divided by $200x total worldwide sales revenue) x $120x total royalties) qualifies as income earned from the sale of intangible property for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(2) of this section and therefore such portion is a FDDEI sale. As a result, $72x of royalties is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(8) Example 8: Deemed sale in exchange for contingent payments under section 367(d).

(i) Facts. DC owns 100 percent of the stock of FP, a foreign related party with respect to DC. FP manufactures and sells product A. For the taxable year, DC contributes to FP exclusive worldwide rights to patents, trademarks, know-how, customer lists, and goodwill and going concern value (collectively, intangible property) related to product A in an exchange described in section 351. DC is required to report an annual income inclusion on its Federal income tax return based on the productivity, use, or disposition of the contributed intangible property under section 367(d). DC includes a percentage of FP's revenue in its gross income under section 367(d) each year. In the current taxable year, FP earns $1,000x of revenue from sales of product A. Based on reliable sales records kept by FP for the taxable year, $300x of FP's revenue is earned from sales of product A to customers within the United States, and $700x of its revenue is earned from sales of product A to customers outside the United States.

(ii) Analysis. DC's deemed sale of the intangible property to FP in exchange for payments contingent upon the productivity, use, or disposition of the intangible property related to product A under section 367(d) is a sale for purposes of section 250 and this section. See §1.250(b)-3(b)(16). Based on FP's sales records for the taxable year, 70 percent of DC's deemed sale to FP is for a foreign use, and 70 percent of DC's income inclusion under section 367(d) derived with respect to such portion is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(9) Example 9: License of intangible property followed by a sale of general property in which the intangible property is embedded; unrelated parties.

(i) Facts. DC owns the worldwide rights to a patent on a silicon chip used in computers, tablets, and smartphones. The patent does not qualify as a manufacturing method or process (as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(3) of this section). DC licenses the worldwide rights to the patent to FP in exchange for annual royalties of 30 percent of revenue from sales of the silicon chips. During the taxable year, FP manufactures silicon chips protected by the patent and sells all of those chips to FP2 for $1,000x. FP2 also purchases similar silicon chips from other suppliers. FP2 uses the silicon chips in computers, tablets, smartphones, and motherboards that FP2 manufactures in country X and sells to its customers located within the United States and foreign countries. For purposes of this example, FP2's manufacturing qualifies as subjecting the silicon chips to manufacture, assembly, or other processing outside the United States as provided in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Analysis. FP is not the end user or treated as an end user (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) because FP is not the unrelated party recipient of the general property in which the patent is embedded, and the patent does not qualify as a manufacturing method or process. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, revenue from royalties paid for the patent is earned from end users outside the United States to the extent the sale of the general property is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Because FP2 is subjecting the silicon chips to manufacture, assembly, or other processing outside the United States, the revenue from royalties FP pays to DC qualifies for foreign use based on the location of FP2's manufacturing and qualifies as a FDDEI sale. As a result, the entire $300x of annual royalties paid by FP to DC during the taxable year is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(10) Example 10: License of intangible property followed by a sale of general property in which the intangible property is embedded; related parties.

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B)(9)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 9), except that FP and FP2 are foreign related parties with respect to DC. FP2 sells and ships computers, tablets, and smartphones it manufactures with the silicon chips it purchases from FP to unrelated party wholesalers located within and outside the United States. The wholesalers within the United States only sell to retailers located within the United States and the wholesalers outside the United States only sell to retailers located outside the United States. The retailers within the United States only sell to customers located within the United States and the retailers located outside the United States only sell to customers located outside the United States. FP2 earns $15,000x of revenue from sales to unrelated party wholesalers located outside the United States and $10,000x of revenue from sales to unrelated party wholesalers located within the United States. FP2 also sells and ships motherboards with the silicon chips it purchases from FP to unrelated party manufacturers located outside the United States. FP2 does not sell motherboards with the silicon chips it purchases from FP to unrelated party manufacturers located within the United States. FP2 earns $5,000x of revenue from the sales of these motherboards to manufacturers located outside the United States. For purposes of this example, these manufacturers subject the motherboards to manufacture, assembly, or other processing outside the United States as provided in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Analysis. FP is not the end user or treated as an end user (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) of the intangible property because FP is not the end user of the general property in which the patent is embedded (the silicon chips). FP2 is also not the end user (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) of the intangible property because FP2 is not the end user of the silicon chips. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, the customers of the retailers that purchase from the unrelated party wholesalers are the end users. Because the wholesalers located outside the United States only sell to retailers located outside the United States that sell to end users located outside the United States, the location of the wholesalers is a reliable basis for determining the location of the end users. Revenue from royalties paid for the patent is earned from end users outside the United States to the extent the sale of the general property is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1) of this section. A portion of the sales to the unrelated party wholesalers qualify as foreign use under paragraph (d)(1) of this section and the sales to the unrelated party manufacturers qualify as foreign use under paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section. Accordingly, revenue from royalties FP pays to DC is from a FDDEI sale to the extent of such sales to the unrelated party manufacturers and such portion of sales to unrelated party wholesalers that qualify for foreign use. As a result, $200x of annual royalties paid by FP to DC during the taxable year ((($15,000x of sales to wholesalers located outside the United States plus $5,000x of sales to manufacturers located outside the United States) divided by $30,000x total sales) x $300x) is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(11) Example 11: License of intangible property followed by a sale of general property that incorporates the intangible property; unrelated parties with manufacturing within the United States.

(i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B)(9)(i) of this section (the facts in Example 9), except that FP2 manufactures its computers, tablets, smartphones, and motherboards in the United States.

(ii) Analysis. FP is not the end user or treated as an end user (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) because FP is not the unrelated party recipient of the general property in which the patent is embedded (the silicon chips) and the patent does not qualify as a manufacturing method or process. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, revenue from royalties paid for the patent is earned from end users outside the United States to the extent the sale of the general property is for a foreign use under paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Because FP2 is subjecting the silicon chips to manufacture, assembly, or other processing within the United States, the revenue from royalties FP pays to DC does not qualify as foreign use based on the location of FP2's manufacturing and therefore does not qualify as a FDDEI sale. As a result, none of the $300x of annual royalties paid by FP to DC during the taxable year is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(12) Example 12: License of intangible property used to provide a service.

(i) Facts. DC licenses to FP worldwide rights to the copyrights on movies in exchange for an annual royalty of $100x. FP also licenses copyrights on movies from persons other than DC. FP provides a streaming service that meets the definition of an electronically supplied service in §1.250(b)-5(c)(5) to its customers within the United States and foreign countries. FP's streaming service provides its customers a catalog of movies to choose to stream. These movies include the copyrighted movies FP licenses from DC. FP does not provide DC with data showing how much revenue FP earned from streaming services during the taxable year, even after DC requests that FP provide it with such information. DC also is unable to determine how much revenue FP earned from streaming services to customers within the United States from the data it has with respect to FP and publicly available data with respect to FP. However, DC's economic analysis of the revenue DC expected it could earn annually from use of the copyrights as part of determining the annual payments DC would receive from FP from the license of the copyrights supports a determination that $10,000x of revenue would be earned during the taxable year from customers worldwide, and that 40 percent of that revenue would be earned from customers located outside the United States. During an examination of DC's return for the taxable year, DC provides the IRS with data explaining the economic analysis, inputs, and results from its valuation of the copyrights used in determining the amount of annual payments agreed to by DC and FP.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, FP's customers are the end users of the copyrights FP licenses from DC because FP uses those copyrights to provide the general service to FP's customers. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, revenue from royalties paid for the copyrights is earned from end users outside the United States to the extent the service qualifies as a FDDEI service under §1.250(b)-5. DC is allowed to use reliable economic analysis to estimate revenue earned by FP from streaming the licensed movies under paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A) of this section because DC was unable to obtain actual revenue earned by FP from use of the copyrights during the taxable year after reasonable efforts to obtain the actual revenue data. Based on DC's reliable economic analysis, $40x of the annual royalty payment to DC (0.40 x $100x total annual royalty payment) is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(13) Example 13: License of intangible property used in research and development of other intangible property.

(i) Facts. DC owns a patent (“patent A”) for an active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) approved for treatment of disease A in the United States and in foreign countries. DC licenses to FP worldwide rights to patent A for an annual royalty of $100x. FP uses patent A in research and development of a new API for treatment of disease B. Patent A does not consist of a manufacturing method or process (as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C)(3) of this section). FP's research and development is successful, resulting in FP obtaining both a patent for the new API for treatment of disease B and approval for use in the United States and foreign countries. FP does not earn any revenue from sales of finished pharmaceutical products containing the API during years 1 through 4 of the license of patent A. In year 5 of the license of patent A, FP earns $800x of revenue from sales of finished pharmaceutical products containing the API to customers located within the United States and $200x of revenue from sales to customers located in foreign countries.

(ii) Analysis. FP is not the end user (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(D) of this section) of patent A because FP is not the end user described in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section of the product in which the API that was developed from patent A is embedded. The unrelated party customers that purchase the finished pharmaceutical product from FP are the end users (as defined in §1.250(b)-3(b)(2) and paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(D) of this section) because those customers are the end users described in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section of the pharmaceutical product in which the newly developed patent is embedded. During the taxable years that include years 1 through 4 of the license of patent A, FP earns no revenue from sales of the API to a foreign person for a foreign use. Under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(D) of this section, none of the $100x annual royalty payments to DC for each of the tax years that include years 1 through 4 of the license of patent A is included in DC's gross FDDEI. Based on FP's sales of the API during the tax year that includes year 5 of the license of patent A, $20x of the annual royalty payment to DC ($200x of revenue from sales of API to customers located outside the United States divided by $1,000x total worldwide revenue earned from sales of the API) x $100x annual royalty) is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(3) Foreign use substantiation for certain sales of property.

(i) In general. Except as provided in §1.250(b)-3(f)(3) (relating to certain loss transactions), a sale of property described in paragraphs (d)(1)(ii)(C) of this section (foreign use for sale of general property for resale), (d)(1)(iii) of this section (foreign use for sale of general property subject to manufacturing, assembly, or processing outside the United States), or (d)(2) of this section (foreign use for sale of intangible property) is a FDDEI transaction only if the taxpayer satisfies the substantiation requirements described in paragraphs (d)(3)(ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section, as applicable.

(ii) Substantiation of foreign use for resale. A seller satisfies the substantiation requirements with respect to a sale of property described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(C) of this section (sales of general property for resale) only if the seller maintains one or more of the following items —

(A) A binding contract that specifically limits subsequent sales to sales outside the United States;

(B) Proof that property is specifically designed, labeled, or adapted for a foreign market;

(C) Proof that the cost of shipping the property back to the United States relative to the value of the property makes it impractical that the property will be resold in the United States;

(D) Credible evidence obtained or created in the ordinary course of business from the recipient evidencing that property will be sold to an end user outside the United States (or, in the case of sales of fungible mass property, stating what portion of the property will be sold to end users outside the United States); or

(E) A written statement prepared by the seller containing the information described in paragraphs (d)(3)(ii)(E)(1) through (7) of this section corroborated by evidence that is credible and sufficient to support the information provided.

(1) The name and address of the recipient;

(2) The date or dates the property was shipped or delivered to the recipient;

(3) The amount of gross income from the sale;

(4) A full description of the property subject to resale;

(5) A description of the method of sales to the end users, such as direct sales by the recipient or sales by the recipient to retail stores;

(6) If known, a description of the end users; and

(7) A description of how the seller determined that property will be ultimately sold to an end user outside the United States (or, in the case of sales of fungible mass property, of how the taxpayer determined what portion of the property that will ultimately be sold to end users outside the United States).

(iii) Substantiation of foreign use for manufacturing, assembly, or other processing outside the United States. A seller satisfies the substantiation requirements with respect to a sale of property described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section (sales of general property subject to manufacturing, assembly, or other processing outside the United States) if the seller maintains one or more of the following items —

(A) Credible evidence that the property has been sold to a foreign unrelated party that is a manufacturer and such property generally cannot be sold to end users without being subject to a physical and material change (for example, the sale of raw materials that cannot be used except in a manufacturing process);

(B) Credible evidence obtained or created in the ordinary course of business from the recipient to support that the product purchased will be subject to manufacture, assembly, or other processing outside the United States within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section; or

(C) A written statement prepared by the seller containing the information described in paragraphs (d)(3)(iii)(C)(1) through (7) of this section corroborated by evidence that is credible and sufficient to support the information provided.

(1) The name and address of the manufacturer of the property;

(2) The date or dates the property was shipped or delivered to the recipient;

(3) The amount of gross income from the sale;

(4) A full description of the general property sold and the type or types of finished goods that will incorporate the general property the taxpayer sold;

(5) A description of the manufacturing, assembly, or other processing operations, including the location or locations of manufacture, assembly, or other processing; how the general property will be used in the finished good; and the nature of the finished good's manufacturing, assembly, or other processing operations as compared to the process used to make the general property used to make the finished good;

(6) A description of how the seller determined the general property was substantially transformed or the activities were substantial in nature within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(B) or (C) of this section, whichever the case may be; and,

(7) If the seller is relying on the rule described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(C) of this section (that the fair market value of the general property be no more than twenty percent of the fair market value when incorporated into the finished goods sold to end users), an explanation of how the seller satisfies the requirements in that paragraph.

(iv) Substantiation of foreign use of intangible property. A taxpayer satisfies the substantiation requirements with respect to a sale of property described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section (foreign use for intangible property) if the seller maintains one or more of the following items —

(A) A binding contract that specifically provides that the intangible property can be exploited solely outside the United States;

(B) Credible evidence obtained or created in the ordinary course of business from the recipient establishing the portion of its revenue for a taxable year that was derived from exploiting the intangible property outside the United States; or

(C) A written statement prepared by the seller containing the information described in paragraphs (d)(3)(iv)(C)(1) through (9) of this section corroborated by evidence that is credible and sufficient to support the information provided.

(1) The name and address of the recipient;

(2) The date of the sale;

(3) The amount of gross income from the sale;

(4) A description of the intangible property;

(5) An explanation of how the intangible property will be used by the recipient (embedded in general property, used to provide a service, used as a manufacturing method or process, or used in research and development);

(6) An explanation of how the seller determined what portion of the sale is a FDDEI sale;

(7) If the intangible property consists of a manufacturing method or process, an explanation of how the elements of paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(C) of this section are satisfied;

(8) If the sale is for periodic payments, an explanation of how the seller determined the extent of foreign use based on the actual revenue earned by the recipient from the use of the intangible property for the taxable year in which a periodic payment is received as required by paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, or, if actual revenue cannot be obtained after reasonable efforts, an explanation of why actual revenue is unavailable and how the seller determined the extent of foreign use based on estimated revenue; and

(9) If the sale is for a lump sum, an explanation of how the seller determined the total net present value of revenue it expected to earn from the exploitation of the intangible property outside the United States and the total net present value of revenue it expected to earn from the exploitation of the intangible property as required by paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section.

(v) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (d)(3).

(A) Assumed facts. The following facts are assumed for purposes of the examples —

(1) DC is a domestic corporation.

(2) FP is a foreign person located within Country A that is a foreign unrelated party with respect to DC.

(3) All of DC's income is DEI.

(4) Except as otherwise provided, the substantive rule for foreign use as described in paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section are satisfied.

(B) Examples.

(1) Example 1: Substantiation by seller of sale of products to distributor outside the United States with taxpayer statement and corroborating evidence.

(i) Facts. DC sells smartphones to FP, a distributor of electronics that sells property to end users. As part of their regular business process and pursuant to DC's terms and conditions of sales, DC issues commercial invoices to FP that contain a condition that any subsequent sales must be to end users outside the United States. At or near the time of the FDII filing date, DC prepares a statement containing the information required in paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(E) of this section. During an examination of DC's return for the taxable year, the IRS requests substantiation information of foreign use. DC submits the commercial invoices issued to FP as supporting information that FP's customers are end users outside the United States and all other corroborating evidence to the IRS.

(ii) Analysis. DC's sale to FP is a sale of general property for resale subject to the substantiation requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. DC satisfies the substantiation requirement by providing the statement that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(E) of this section. The commercial invoices issued pursuant to the terms and conditions of sales sufficiently corroborate DC's statement that the smartphones will ultimately be sold to end users outside of the United States.

(2) Example 2: Substantiation of sale of products to distributor outside the United States with recipient provided information.

(i) Facts. DC sells cameras to FP, a distributor of electronics that sells property to end users outside the United States. FP issues sales invoices to its end users. The invoices contain detailed information about the nature of the subsequent sales of the cameras and the location of the end users for value added tax (VAT) purposes. DC is able to obtain copies of FP's VAT invoices with respect to the camera sales that were maintained and submitted pursuant to Country A law. Rather than prepare a statement described in paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(E) of this section, DC submits FP's invoices to the IRS as substantiation of foreign use.

(ii) Analysis. DC's sale to FP is a sale of general property for resale subject to the substantiation requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. DC satisfies the substantiation requirements by providing the invoices that satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(D) of this section. The VAT invoices issued by FP pursuant to Country A law constitute credible evidence from FP that ultimate sales are to end users located outside the United States.

(e) Sales of interests in a disregarded entity. Under Federal income tax principles, the sale of any interest in an entity that is disregarded for Federal income tax purposes is considered the sale of the assets of that entity, and this section applies to the sale of each such asset that is general property or intangible property for purposes of determining whether such sale qualifies as a FDDEI sale.

(f) FDDEI sales hedging transactions.

(1) In general. The amount of a corporation's or partnership's gross FDDEI from FDDEI sales of general property in a taxable year is increased by any gain, or decreased by any loss, taken into account in that taxable year with respect to any FDDEI sales hedging transactions (determined by taking into account the applicable Federal income tax accounting rules, including §1.446-4).

(2) FDDEI sales hedging transaction. The term FDDEI sales hedging transaction means a transaction that meets the requirements of §1.1221-2(a) through (e) and that is identified in accordance with the requirements of §1.1221-2(f), except that the transaction must manage risk of price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to ordinary property, as provided in §1.1221-2(b)(1), and the ordinary property whose price risk is being hedged must be general property that is sold in a FDDEI sale.

[Added by T.D. 9901, 85 FR 43042-43117, July 15, 2020; corrected at 85 FR 60909-60910, Sept. 29, 2020; T.D. 9901, 85 FR 68249-68250, Oct. 28, 2020.]

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