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Sec. 1.250(b)-5 Foreign-derived deduction eligible income (FDDEI) services.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules for determining whether a provision of a service is a FDDEI service. Paragraph (b) of this section defines a FDDEI service. Paragraph (c) of this section provides definitions relevant for determining whether a provision of a service is a FDDEI service. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for determining whether a general service is provided to a consumer located outside the United States. Paragraph (e) of this section provides rules for determining whether a general service is provided to a business recipient located outside the United States. Paragraph (f) of this section provides rules for determining whether a proximate service is provided to a recipient located outside the United States. Paragraph (g) of this section provides rules for determining whether a service is provided with respect to property located outside the United States. Paragraph (h) of this section provides rules for determining whether a transportation service is provided to a recipient, or with respect to property, located outside the United States.

(b) Definition of FDDEI service. Except as provided in §1.250(b)-6(d), the term FDDEI service means a provision of a service described in any one of paragraphs (b)(1) through (5) of this section. If only a portion of a service is treated as provided to a person, or with respect to property, outside the United States, the provision of the service is a FDDEI service only to the extent of the gross income derived with respect to such portion.

(1) The provision of a general service to a consumer located outside the United States (as determined under paragraph (d) of this section).

(2) The provision of a general service to a business recipient located outside the United States (as determined under paragraph (e) of this section).

(3) The provision of a proximate service to a recipient located outside the United States (as determined under paragraph (f) of this section).

(4) The provision of a property service with respect to tangible property located outside the United States (as determined under paragraph (g) of this section).

(5) The provision of a transportation service to a recipient, or with respect to property, located outside the United States (as determined under paragraph (h) of this section).

(c) Definitions. This paragraph (c) provides definitions that apply for purposes of this section and §1.250(b)-6.

(1) Advertising service. The term advertising service means a general service that consists primarily of transmitting or displaying content (including via the internet) with a purpose to generate revenue based on the promotion of a product or service.

(2) Benefit. The term benefit has the meaning set forth in §1.482-9(l)(3).

(3) Business recipient. The term business recipient means a recipient other than a consumer and includes all related parties of the recipient. However, if the recipient is a related party of the taxpayer, the term does not include the taxpayer.

(4) Consumer. The term consumer means a recipient that is an individual that purchases a general service for personal use.

(5) Electronically supplied service. The term electronically supplied service means, with respect to a general service other than an advertising service, a service that is delivered primarily over the internet or an electronic network and for which value of the service to the end user is derived primarily from automation or electronic delivery. Electronically supplied services include the provision of access to digital content (as defined in §1.250(b)-3), such as streaming content; on-demand network access to computing resources, such as networks, servers, storage, and software; the provision or support of a business or personal presence on a network, such as a website or a webpage; online intermediation platform services; services automatically generated from a computer via the internet or other network in response to data input by the recipient; and similar services. Electronically supplied services do not include services that primarily involve the application of human effort by the renderer (not considering the human effort involved in the development or maintenance of the technology enabling the electronically supplied services). Accordingly, electronically supplied services do not include certain services (such as legal, accounting, medical, or teaching services) involving primarily human effort that are provided electronically.

(6) General service. The term general service means any service other than a property service, proximate service, or transportation service. The term general service includes advertising services and electronically supplied services.

(7) Property service. The term property service means a service, other than a transportation service, provided with respect to tangible property, but only if substantially all of the service is performed at the location of the property and results in physical manipulation of the property such as through manufacturing, assembly, maintenance, or repair. Substantially all of a service is performed at the location of property only if the renderer spends more than 80 percent of the time providing the service at or near the location of the property.

(8) Proximate service. The term proximate service means a service, other than a property service or a transportation service, provided to a consumer or business recipient, but only if substantially all of the service is performed in the physical presence of the consumer or, in the case of a business recipient, substantially all of the service is performed in the physical presence of persons working for the business recipient such as employees, contractors, or agents. Substantially all of a service is performed in the physical presence of a consumer or persons working for a business recipient only if the renderer spends more than 80 percent of the time providing the service in the physical presence of such persons.

(9) Transportation service. The term transportation service means a service to transport a person or property using aircraft, railroad rolling stock, vessel, motor vehicle, or any other mode of transportation. Transportation services include freight forwarding and similar services.

(d) General services provided to consumers —

(1) In general. A general service is provided to a consumer located outside the United States if the consumer of a general service resides outside of the United States when the service is provided. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, if the renderer does not have or cannot after reasonable efforts obtain the consumer's location of residence when the service is provided, the consumer of a general service is treated as residing at the location of the consumer's billing address. However, the rule in the preceding sentence allowing for the use of a consumer's billing address does not apply if the renderer knows or has reason to know that the consumer does not reside outside the United States. A renderer has reason to know that the consumer does not reside outside the United States if the information received as part of the provision of the service indicates that the consumer resides in the United States and the renderer fails to obtain evidence establishing that the consumer resides outside the United States.

(2) Electronically supplied services. The consumer of an electronically supplied service is deemed to reside at the location of the device used to receive the service. Such location may be determined based on the location of the IP address when the electronically supplied service is provided. However, if the renderer does not have or cannot after reasonable efforts obtain the consumer's device location, then the location of the device is treated as being outside the United States if the renderer's billing address for the consumer is outside of the United States, subject to the knowledge and reason to know standards described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(3) Example. The following example illustrates the application of paragraph (d) of this section.

(i) Facts. DC, a domestic corporation, provides a streaming movie service on its website. The terms of the service allow consumers to watch movies over the internet. The terms of the service permit the consumer to view the movies for personal use, but convey no ownership of movies to the consumers.

(ii) Analysis. The streaming service is a FDDEI service under paragraph (d)(1) of this section to the extent that the service is provided to consumers that reside outside the United States. The service that DC provides is a general service, provided to consumers that is an electronically supplied service under paragraph (c)(5) of this section. Therefore, the consumers are deemed to reside at the location of the devices used to receive the service under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. However, if the renderer cannot reasonably obtain the consumers' device location (such as IP addresses), the device location is treated as being outside the United States if their billing addresses are outside the United States. See §1.250(b)-4(d)(1)(v)(B)(7) for an example of digital content provided to consumers as a sale rather than a service.

(e) General services provided to business recipients —

(1) In general. A general service is provided to a business recipient located outside the United States to the extent that the service confers a benefit on the business recipient's operations outside the United States under the rules in paragraph (e)(2) of this section. The location of residence, incorporation, or formation of a business recipient is not relevant to determining the location of the business recipient's operations that benefit from a general service.

(2) Determination of business operations that benefit from the service —

(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, the determination of which operations of the business recipient located outside the United States benefit from a general service, and the extent to which such operations benefit, is made under the principles of §1.482-9 by treating the taxpayer as one controlled taxpayer, the portions of the business recipient's operations within the United States (if any) that may benefit from the general service as one or more controlled taxpayers, and the portions of the business recipient's operations outside the United States (if any) that may benefit from the general service, each as one or more controlled taxpayers. The extent to which a business recipient's operations within or outside of the United States are treated as one or more separate controlled taxpayers is determined under any reasonable method (for example, separate controlled taxpayers may be determined on a per entity or per country basis, or by aggregating all of the business recipient's operations outside the United States as one controlled taxpayer). The determination of the amount of the benefit conferred on the business recipient's operations that are treated as controlled taxpayers is determined under a reasonable method consistent with the principles of §1.482-9(k), treating the renderer's gross income from the services provided to the business recipient as if it were a “cost” as that term is used in §1.482-9(k). Reasonable methods may include, for example, allocations based on time spent or costs incurred by the renderer or sales, profits, or assets of the business recipient. The determination is made when the service is provided based on information obtained from the business recipient or on the renderer's own records (such as time spent working with the business recipient's offices located outside the United States).

(ii) Advertising services. With respect to advertising services, the operations of the business recipient that benefit from the advertising service provided by the renderer are deemed to be located where the advertisements are viewed by individuals. If advertising services are displayed via the internet, the advertising services are viewed at the location of the device on which the advertisements are viewed. For this purpose, the IP address may be used to establish the location of a device on which an advertisement is viewed.

(iii) Electronically supplied services. With respect to an electronically supplied service, the operations of the business recipient that benefit from that service provided by the renderer are deemed to be located where the business recipient (including employees, contractors, or agents) accesses or otherwise uses the service. If it cannot be determined whether the location is within or outside the United States (such as where the location of access cannot be reliably determined using the location of the IP address of the device used to receive the service), and the gross receipts from all services with respect to the business recipient are in the aggregate less than $50,000 for the renderer’s taxable year, the operations of the business recipient that benefit from the service provided by the renderer are deemed to be located at the recipient’s billing address; otherwise, the operations of the business recipient that benefit are deemed to be located in the United States. If the renderer provides a service that is partially an electronically supplied service and partially a general service that is not an electronically supplied service (such as a service that is performed partially online and partially by mail or in person), the location of the business recipient is determined using the rule for electronically supplied services in this paragraph (e)(2)(iii) if the primary purpose of the service is to provide electronically supplied services; otherwise, the rule for general services described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section applies.

(3) Identification of business recipient's operations —

(i) In general. For purposes of this paragraph (e), except with respect to advertising services and electronically supplied services, a business recipient is treated as having operations where it maintains an office or other fixed place of business. In general, an office or other fixed place of business is a fixed facility, that is, a place, site, structure, or other similar facility, through which the business recipient engages in a trade or business. For purposes of making the determination in this paragraph (e)(3)(i), the renderer may make reliable assumptions based on the information available to it.

(ii) Advertising services and electronically supplied services. The location of a business recipient that receives advertising services or electronically supplied services will be determined under the rules of paragraph (e)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, respectively, even if the business recipient does not maintain an office or other fixed place of business in the locations where the advertisements are viewed (in the case of advertising services) or where the general service is accessed (in the case of electronically supplied services).

(iii) No office or fixed place of business. In the case of general services other than advertising services and other than electronically supplied services, if the business recipient does not have an identifiable office or fixed place of business (including the office of a principal manager or managing owner), the business recipient is deemed to be located at its primary billing address.

(4) Substantiation of the location of a business recipient's operations outside the United States. Except as provided in §1.250(b)-3(f)(3) (relating to certain loss transactions), a general service provided to a business recipient is treated as a FDDEI service only if the renderer substantiates its determination of the extent to which the service benefits a business recipient's operations outside the United States. A renderer satisfies the preceding sentence if the renderer maintains one or more of the following items —

(i) Credible evidence obtained or created in the ordinary course of business from the business recipient establishing the extent to which operations of the business recipient outside the United States benefit from the service; or

(ii) A written statement prepared by the renderer containing the information described in paragraphs (e)(4)(ii)(A) through (F) of this section corroborated by evidence that is credible and sufficient to support the information provided.

(A) The name of the business recipient;

(B) The date or dates of the service;

(C) The amount of gross income from the service;

(D) A full description of the service;

(E) A description of how the service will benefit the business recipient; and

(F) An explanation of how the renderer determined what portion of the service will benefit the business recipient's operations located outside the United States.

(5) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (e).

(i) Assumed facts. The following facts are assumed for purposes of the examples —

(A) DC is a domestic corporation.

(B) A and R are not related parties of DC.

(C) Except as otherwise provided, the substantiation requirements described in paragraph (e)(4) of this section are satisfied.

(ii) Examples —

(A) Example 1: Determination of business operations that benefit from the service —

(1) Facts. For the taxable year, DC provides a consulting service to R, a company that operates restaurants within and outside of the United States, in exchange for $150x. Fifty percent of the sales earned by R and its related parties are from customers located outside of the United States. However, the consulting service that DC provides relates specifically to a single chain of fast food restaurants that R operates. Sales information that R provides to DC indicates that 70 percent of the sales of the fast food restaurant chain are from locations within the United States and 30 percent of the sales are from Country X. DC determines that the use of sales is a reasonable method under the principles of §1.482-9(k) to allocate the benefit of the consulting service among R's fast food operations.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (e)(1) of this section, DC's service is provided to a person located outside the United States to the extent that DC's service confers a benefit to R's operations outside the United States. Under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, DC, R's fast food operations within the United States, and R's fast food operations in Country X, are treated as if they were controlled taxpayers because only these operations may benefit from DC's service. The principles of §1.482-9(k) apply to determine the amount of DC's service that benefits R's operations outside the United States. DC's gross income is allocated based on the sales of the fast food chain of restaurants that benefits from DC's service because using sales is a reasonable method. Therefore, 30 percent of the provision of the consulting service is treated as the provision of a service to a person located outside the United States and a FDDEI service under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Accordingly, $45x ($150x x 0.30) of DC's gross income from the provision of the consulting service is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(B) Example 2: Determination of business operations that benefit from the service; alternative facts —

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (e)(5)(ii)(A)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that DC provides an information technology service to R that benefits R's entire business. DC determines that the use of sales is a reasonable method under the principles of §1.482-9(k) to allocate the benefit of the information technology service among R's entire business.

(2) Analysis. DC, R's operations within the United States, and R's operations in Country X, are treated as if they were controlled taxpayers because the service that DC provides relates to R's entire business. DC's gross income is allocated based on sales of the entire business because using sales is a reasonable method to determine the amount of DC's service that benefits R's operations outside the United States under the principles of §1.482-9(k). Therefore, 50 percent of the provision of the information technology service is treated as a service to a person located outside the United States and a FDDEI service under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Accordingly, $75x ($150x x 0.50) of DC's gross income from the provision of the information technology service is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(C) Example 3: Advertising services —

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (e)(5)(ii)(A)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that DC provides an advertising service to R. DC displays advertisements for R's restaurant chain on its social media website and smartphone application. Based on the IP addresses of the devices on which the advertisements are viewed, 20 percent of the views of the advertisements were from devices located outside the United States.

(2) Analysis. Because the service that DC provides is an advertising service, under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, as modified by paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, R's operations that benefit from DC's advertising service are deemed to be where the advertisements are viewed. Therefore, 20 percent of the provision of the advertising service is treated as a service to a person located outside the United States and a FDDEI service under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Accordingly, $30x ($150x x 0.20) of DC's gross income from the provision of the advertising service is included in DC's gross FDDEI for the taxable year.

(D) Example 4: No reliable information about which operations benefit from the service or publicly available information —

(1) Facts. For the taxable year, DC provides a consulting service to R, a business-facing company that does not advertise its business. All of DC's interaction with R is through R's employees that report to an office in the United States. Statements made by R's employees indicate that the service will benefit R's business operations located within and outside the United States, but do not provide information that would allow DC to reliably determine the extent to which its service will confer a benefit on R's business operations located outside the United States.

(2) Analysis. DC is unable to determine the extent to which its service will confer a benefit on R's business operations located outside the United States under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. Accordingly, DC cannot substantiate a determination of the extent to which the service benefits a business recipient's operations outside the United States under paragraph (e)(4) of this section. Therefore, no portion of DC's service is a FDDEI service.

(E) Example 5: Electronically supplied services that are accessed by the business recipient's employees —

(1) Facts. DC provides payroll services for R. As part of this service, DC maintains a website through which R can enter payroll information for its employees and through which R's employees can enter and change their personal information. DC also causes R's employees' paychecks to be directly deposited into their bank accounts and pays R's employment taxes on R's behalf. The primary purpose of the service is to pay R's employees. R has 100 user accounts that access DC's website. Sixty of the user accounts that access DC's website access the website from devices that are located outside the United States and forty of the user accounts access the website from devices that are located inside the United States.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (e)(1) of this section, DC's service is provided to a person located outside the United States to the extent that DC's service confers a benefit to R's operations outside the United States. The service that DC provides to R is an electronically supplied service under paragraph (c)(5) of this section. Accordingly, under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, as modified by paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section, R's operations that benefit from DC's services are deemed to be located where R accesses the service, which is where R's employees access the website. See paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section. Accordingly, the portion of the payroll service that is treated as a service to a person located outside the United States and a FDDEI service under paragraph (b)(2) of this section is determined based on the extent to which the locations where R accesses the website are located outside the United States. Because 60 percent (60/100) of user accounts access DC's website from locations outside the United States, 60 percent of the provision of the payroll service is treated as a service to a person located outside the United States and a FDDEI service under paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(F) Example 6: Electronically supplied services that are accessed by the business recipient's customers —

(1) Facts. DC maintains an inventory management website for R, a company that sells consumer goods online. R's offices and all of its employees, who use the website, are located in the United States, but R sells its products to customers both within and outside the United States.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraph (e)(1) of this section, DC's service is provided to a person located outside the United States to the extent that DC's service confers a benefit to R's operations outside the United States. The service that DC provides to R is an electronically supplied service under paragraph (c)(5) of this section. Accordingly, under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, as modified by paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section, R's operations that benefit from DC's services are deemed to be located where the service is accessed by employees. Therefore, none of the provision of the inventory management website is treated as a service to a person located outside the United States and none is a FDDEI service under paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(G) Example 7: Service provided to a domestic person —

(1) Facts. A, a domestic corporation that operates solely in the United States, enters into a services agreement with R, a company that operates solely outside the United States. Under the agreement, A agrees to perform a consulting service for R. A hires DC to provide a service to A that A will use in the provision of a consulting service to R.

(2) Analysis. Because DC provides a service to A, a person located within the United States, DC's provision of the service to A is not a FDDEI service under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, even though the service is used by A in providing a service to R, a person located outside the United States. See also section 250(b)(5)(B)(ii). However, A's provision of the consulting service to R may be a FDDEI service, in which case A's gross income from the provision of such service would be included in A's gross FDDEI.

(f) Proximate services. A proximate service is provided to a recipient located outside the United States if the proximate service is performed outside the United States. In the case of a proximate service performed partly within the United States and partly outside of the United States, a proportionate amount of the service is treated as provided to a recipient located outside the United States corresponding to the portion of time the renderer spends providing the service outside of the United States.

(g) Property services —

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, a property service is provided with respect to tangible property located outside the United States only if the property is located outside the United States for the duration of the period the service is performed.

(2) Exception for services provided with respect to property temporarily in the United States. A property service is deemed to be provided with respect to tangible property located outside the United States if the following conditions are satisfied —

(i) The property is temporarily in the United States for the purpose of receiving the property service;

(ii) After the completion of the service, the property will be primarily hangared, stored, or used outside the United States;

(iii) The property is not used to generate revenue in the United States at any point during the duration of the service; and

(iv) The property is owned by a foreign person that resides or primarily operates outside the United States.

(h) Transportation services. Except as provided in this paragraph (h), a transportation service is provided to a recipient, or with respect to property, located outside the United States only if both the origin and the destination of the service are outside of the United States. However, in the case of a transportation service provided to a recipient, or with respect to property, where either the origin or the destination of the service is outside of the United States, but not both, then 50 percent of the gross income from the transportation service is considered derived from services provided to a recipient, or with respect to property, located outside the United States.

[Added by T.D. 9901, 85 FR 43042-43117, July 15, 2020; corrected at 85 FR 60909-60910, Sept. 29, 2020; amended by T.D. 9901, 85 FR 68249-68250, Oct. 28, 2020; T.D. 9959, 87 FR 276-376, Jan. 4, 2022.]

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