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Sec. 1.250(b)-6 Related party transactions.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules for determining whether a sale of property or a provision of a service to a related party is a FDDEI transaction. Paragraph (b) of this section provides definitions relevant for determining whether a sale of property or a provision of a service to a related party is a FDDEI transaction. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules for determining whether a sale of general property to a foreign related party is a FDDEI sale. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules for determining whether the provision of a general service to a business recipient that is a related party is a FDDEI service.

(b) Definitions. This paragraph (b) provides definitions that apply for purposes of this section.

(1) Related party sale. The term related party sale means a sale of general property to a foreign related party. See §1.250(b)-1(e)(3)(ii)(D) (Example 4) for an illustration of a related party sale in the case of a seller that is a partnership.

(2) Related party service. The term related party service means a provision of a general service to a business recipient that is a related party of the renderer and that is described in §1.250(b)-5(b)(2) without regard to paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Unrelated party transaction. The term unrelated party transaction means, with respect to property purchased by a foreign related party (the "purchased property") in a related party sale from a seller--

(i) A sale of the purchased property by the foreign related party in the ordinary course of its business to a foreign unrelated party with respect to the seller;

(ii) A sale of property by the foreign related party to a foreign unrelated party with respect to the seller, if the purchased property is a constituent part of the property sold to the foreign unrelated party;

(iii) A sale of property by the foreign related party to a foreign unrelated party with respect to the seller, if the purchased property is not a constituent part of the product sold to the foreign unrelated party but rather is used in connection with producing the property sold to the foreign unrelated party; or

(iv) A provision of a service by the foreign related party to a foreign unrelated party with respect to the seller, if the purchased property was used in connection with the provision of the service.

(c) Related party sales.

(1) In general. A related party sale of general property is a FDDEI sale only if the requirements described in either paragraph (c)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section are satisfied with respect to the related party sale. This paragraph (c) does not apply in determining whether a sale of intangible property to a foreign related party is a FDDEI sale.

(i) Sale of property in an unrelated party transaction. A related party sale is a FDDEI sale if an unrelated party transaction described in paragraph (b)(3)(i) or (ii) of this section occurs with respect to the property purchased in the related party sale and such unrelated party transaction is described in §1.250(b)-4(b) (definition of FDDEI sale). The seller in the related party sale may establish that an unrelated party transaction will occur with respect to the property, or what portion of the property will be sold in an unrelated party transaction in the case of sale of a fungible mass of general property, based on contractual terms (including, for example, that the related party is contractually bound to only sell the product to foreign unrelated parties), past practices of the foreign related party (such as practices to only sell products to foreign unrelated parties), a showing that the product sold is designed specifically for a foreign market, or books and records otherwise evidencing that sales will be made to foreign unrelated parties.

(ii) Use of property in an unrelated party transaction. A related party sale is a FDDEI sale if one or more unrelated party transactions described in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) or (iv) of this section occurs with respect to the property purchased in the related party sale and such unrelated party transaction or transactions would be described in §1.250(b)-4(b) or §1.250(b)-5(b) (definition of FDDEI service). If the property purchased in the related party sale will be used in unrelated party transactions described in the preceding sentence and other transactions, the amount of gross income from the related party sale that is attributable to a FDDEI sale is equal to the gross income from the related party sale multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the revenue that the related party reasonably expects (as of the FDII filing date) to earn from all unrelated party transactions with respect to the property purchased in the related party sale that would be described in §1.250(b)-4(b) or §1.250(b)-5(b) and the denominator of which is the total revenue that the related party reasonably expects (as of the FDII filing date) to earn from all transactions with respect to the property purchased in the related party sale.

(2) Treatment of foreign related party as seller or renderer. For purposes of determining whether a sale of property or provision of a service by a foreign related party is, or would be, described in §1.250(b)-4(b) or §1.250(b)-5(b), the foreign related party that sells the property or provides the service is treated as a seller or renderer, as applicable, and the foreign unrelated party is treated as the recipient.

(3) Transactions between related parties. For purposes of determining whether an unrelated party sale has occurred and satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) or (2) of this section with respect to a sale to a foreign related party (and not for purposes of determining whether a sale is to a foreign person as required by §1.250(b)-4(b)), the seller and all related parties of the seller are treated as if they are part of a single foreign related party. For purposes of the preceding sentence, in determining whether a United States person is a member of the seller’s modified affiliated group, and therefore a related party of the seller, the definition of the term modified affiliated group in §1.250(b)-1(c)(17) applies without the substitution of "more than 50 percent" for "at least 80 percent" each place it appears. Accordingly, if a foreign related party sells or uses property purchased in a related party sale in a transaction with a second related party of the seller, transactions between the second related party and an unrelated party may be treated as an unrelated party transaction for purposes of applying paragraph (c)(1) of this section to a related party sale.

(4) Example. The following example illustrates the application of this paragraph (c).

(i) Facts. DC, a domestic corporation, sells a machine to FC, a foreign related party of DC in a transaction described in §1.250(b)-4(b) (without regard to this paragraph (c)). FC uses the machine solely to manufacture product A. As of the FDII filing date for the taxable year, 75 percent of future revenue from sales by FC to unrelated parties of product A will be from sales that would be described in §1.250(b)-4(b).

(ii) Analysis. The sale by DC to FC is a related party sale. Because FC uses the machine to make product A, but the machine is not a constituent part of product A because FC does not undertake further manufacturing with respect to the machine itself, FC’s sale of product A is an unrelated party transaction described in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. Therefore, DC’s sale of the machine is only a FDDEI sale if the requirements of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section are satisfied. Because 75 percent of the revenue from future sales of product A will be from unrelated party transactions that would be described in §1.250(b)-4(b), 75 percent of the revenues from DC’s sale of the machine to FC constitute FDDEI sales.

(d) Related party services.

(1) In general. Except as provided in this paragraph (d)(1), a related party service is a FDDEI service only if the related party service is not substantially similar to a service that has been provided or will be provided by the related party to a person located within the United States. However, if a related party service is substantially similar to a service provided (in whole or in part) by the related party to a person located in the United States solely by reason of paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the amount of gross income from the related party service attributable to a FDDEI service is equal to the difference between the gross income from the related party service and the amount of the price paid by persons located within the United States that is attributable to the related party service. Section 250(b)(5)(C)(ii) and this paragraph (d)(1) apply only to a general service provided to a related party that is a business recipient and are not applicable with respect to any other service provided to a related party.

(2) Substantially similar services. A related party service is substantially similar to a service provided by the related party to a person located within the United States only if the related party service is used by the related party in whole or part to provide a service to a person located within the United States and either--

(i) 60 percent or more of the benefits conferred by the related party service are directly used by the related party to confer benefits on consumers or business recipients located within the United States; or

(ii) 60 percent or more of the price paid by consumers or business recipients located within the United States for the service provided by the related party is attributable to the related party service.

(3) Special rules. For purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, the rules in paragraphs (d)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section apply.

(i) Rules for determining the location of and price paid by recipients of a service provided by a related party. The location of a consumer or business recipient with respect to services provided by the related party is determined under §1.250(b)-5(d) and (e)(2), respectively, but treating the related party as the renderer. Accordingly, if the related party provides a service to a business recipient, the related party is treated as conferring benefits on a person located within the United States to the extent that the service confers a benefit on the business recipient’s operations located within the United States. Similarly, for purposes of applying paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section with respect to business recipients, the price paid by a business recipient to the related party for services is allocated proportionally based on the locations of the business recipient that benefit from the services provided by the related party.

(ii) Rules for allocating the benefits provided by and price paid to the renderer of a related party service. For purposes of applying paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section with respect to benefits that are directly used by the related party to confer benefits on its recipients, the benefits provided by the renderer to the related party are allocated to the related party’s consumers or business recipients within the United States based on the proportion of benefits conferred by the related party on consumers or business recipients located within the United States. For purposes of determining the amount of the price paid by persons located within the United States that is attributable to the related party service in applying paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, if the related party provides services that confer benefits on persons located within the United States and outside the United States, the price paid for the related party service by the related party to the renderer is allocated proportionally based on the benefits conferred on each location by the related party to its recipients.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph(d).

(i) Assumed facts. The following facts are assumed for purposes of the examples--

(A) DC is a domestic corporation.

(B) FC is a foreign corporation and a foreign related party of DC that operates solely outside the United States.

(C) The service DC provides to FC is a general service provided to a business recipient located outside the United States as described in §1.250(b)-5(b)(2) without regard to the application of paragraph (d) of this section.

(D) The benefits conferred by DC’s service to FC’s customers are not indirect or remote within the meaning of §1.482-9(l)(3)(ii).

(ii) Examples.

(A) Example 1: Services that are substantially similar services under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(1) Facts. FC enters into a services agreement with R, a company that operates restaurant chains within and outside the United States. Under the agreement, FC agrees to furnish a design for the renovation of a chain of restaurants that R owns; the design will include architectural plans. FC hires DC to provide an architectural service to FC that FC will use in the provision of its design service to R. The architectural service that DC provides to FC will serve no other purpose than to enable FC to provide its service to R. The service that FC provides will benefit only R’s operations within the United States. FC pays an arm’s length price of $50x to DC for the architectural service and DC recognizes $50x of gross income from the service. FC incurs additional costs to add additional design elements to the plans and charges R a total of $100x for its service.

(2) Analysis. All of the service that DC provides to FC is directly used in the provision of a service to R because FC uses DC’s architectural service to provide its design service to R, and the architectural service that DC provides to FC will serve no purpose other than to enable FC to provide its service to R. In addition, FC is treated as conferring benefits only to persons located within the United States under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section because only R’s operations within the United States benefit from the service provided by FC that used the service provided by DC. Therefore, the service provided by DC to FC is substantially similar to the service provided by FC to R under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section. Accordingly, DC’s provision of the architectural service to FC is not a FDDEI service under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, and DC’s gross income from the architectural service ($50x) is not included in its gross FDDEI.

(B) Example 2: Services that are not substantially similar services under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as paragraph (d)(4)(ii)(A)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1), except that 90 percent of R’s operations that will benefit from FC’s service are located outside the United States.

(2) Analysis.

(i) Analysis under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section. All of the service that DC provides to FC is directly used in the provision of a service to R. However, because 90 percent of R’s operations that will benefit from FC’s service are located outside the United States under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, only 10 percent of the benefits of FC’s service are conferred on persons located within the United States. Further, because FC’s service confers a benefit on R’s operations located within and outside the United States, the benefit provided by DC to FC is allocated proportionately based on the locations of R that benefit from the services provided by FC under paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. Therefore, only 10 percent of DC’s architectural service are directly used by FC to confer benefits on persons located within the United States under paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. Therefore, the architectural service provided by DC to FC is not substantially similar to the design service provided by FC to persons located within the United States under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(C) Example 3: Services that are substantially similar services under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section.

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as paragraph (d)(4)(ii)(B)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 2), except that FC pays an arm’s length price of $75x to DC for the architectural service and DC recognizes $75x of gross income from the service. As in paragraph (d)(4)(ii)(A)(1) and (d)(4)(ii)(B)(1) of this section (the facts in Example 1 and Example 2), FC charges R a total of $100x for its service.

(2) Analysis.

(i) Price paid by persons located within the United States. Under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, FC is treated as conferring benefits on a person located within the United States to the extent that R’s operations that will benefit from FC’s service are located within the United States. Further, because FC’s service confers a benefit on R’s operations located within and outside the United States, the price paid by R to FC ($100x) is allocated proportionately based on the locations of R that benefit from the services provided by FC under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section. Accordingly, because 10 percent of R’s operations that will benefit from FC’s services are located within the United States, persons located within the United States are treated as paying $10x ($100x x 0.10) for FC’s services for purposes of applying the test in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Amount attributable to the related party service. The service that FC provides to R is attributable in part to DC’s service because FC uses the architectural plans that DC provides to provide a service to R. Under paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section, because the benefits of the service provided by FC are conferred on persons located within the United States and outside the United States, a proportionate amount (10 percent) of the price paid to DC for the related party service ($75x), or $7.5x, is treated as attributable to the services provided to persons located within the United States.

(iii) Application of test in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section. For purposes of applying the test described in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the price paid by persons located within the United States for the service provided by the related party (FC) is $10x, as determined in paragraph (d)(4)(ii)(C)(2)(i) of this section (the analysis of this Example 3). The amount of the price that is attributable to DC’s service is $7.5x, as determined in paragraph (d)(4)(ii)(C)(2)(ii) of this section (the analysis of this Example 3). Accordingly, of the price treated as paid to FC by persons located within the United States, 75 percent ($7.5x/$10x) is attributable to the related party service. Because more than 60 percent of the price treated as paid by persons within the United States for FC’s service is attributable to DC’s service, the service provided by DC to FC is substantially similar to the design service provided by FC to persons located within the United States under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Conclusion. Under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, because the related party service provided by DC is substantially similar to the service provided by FC to a person located in the United States solely by reason of paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the difference between DC’s gross income from the related party service and the amount of the price paid by persons located within the United States that is attributable to the related party service is treated as a FDDEI service. Accordingly, $67.5x ($75x - $7.5x) of DC’s gross income from the provision of the service to FC is treated as a FDDEI service.

[Added by T.D. 9901, 85 FR 43042-43117, July 15, 2020; corrected at 85 FR 60909-60910, Sept. 29, 2020; 85 FR 68249-68250, Oct. 28, 2020.]

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